ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS IN BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH AND PRACTICE : A TO J

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An acronym is an abbreviation of a phrase, where each letter of the acronym is added consecutively from the first letter of each of the words of the phrase.

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# A BCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

- # -

# A B C DEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

%C : cross-linking agent (g/100mL) / %T

%T : total gel concentration

1-D : one dimensional

1-HP : 1-hydroxypyrene

1-MT : 1-methyl-DL-tryptophan

1-7 CHI : 1-(7-carboxyheptyl) imidazole

2,4-D : dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

2,4,5-T : 2,4,5-trichlorphenoxy-acetic acid

2-AM : 2-acetoxymethylester

2-AP : 2-amino purine

2-D : two-dimensional

2-DDGE : 2-D DNA gel electrophoresis

2-DE : 1) 2-D electrophoresis ; 2) 2-D echocardiography

2-EHMC : 2-ethylhexyl p-methoxycinnamate

2-HIS : 2-hydroxyflavanone synthase

2-ME : 2-mercaptoethanol

2-PAM : pyridine-2-aldoxime methyl chloride

3AP : 3-acetylpyridine (3-AP)

3D : three-dimensional

3-MB : 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzylamine

3-MT : 3-methoxytyramine

3-OMD : 3-O-methylDOPA

3T3 : (cell line with) optimal growth if subcultivated at 3x105 cell/dish every 3 days

3VC : 3 vessel cord

4-AP : 4-aminopyridine

4-a-PDD : 4-a-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate

4CL : 4-coumarate CoA ligase

4E-BP : eIF-4E binding protein

4-HPR : 4-hydroxyphenylretinamide

4-MB :  4-methoxy-3-hydroxybenzylamine

4-MT : 4-methoxytyramine

4-OHT : 4-hydroxytamoxifen

4S : Scandinavian simvastatin survival study

4.1m : putative band 4.1 homologues binding motif

5-BU : 5-bromouracil

5-HIAA : 5-hydroxy-indol-acetic acid

5-HT : 5-hydroxytryptamine

5-MOP : 5-methoxypsoralen

5ohU : 5-hydroxyuracil

5'-TOP : 5'-terminal oligopyrimidine-rich (tract)

53BP : p53 binding protein

6Ckine : chemokine with 6 Cys residues

6-DMAP : 6-dimethylaminopurine

6-MP : 6-mercaptopurine

6-TG : 6-thioguanine

6TX : 6-thioxanthine

7AAD : 7-amino actinomycin D (7-AAD)

- A -

# A B C DEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

A : 1) adenosine ; 2) Ala ; 3) atto (a) ; 4) angstrom (Å) ; 5) activated (a) ; 6) absorbance ; 7) anisotropic ; 8) ampere (unit) ; 9) acid(ic) or anionic (a) ; 10) abortion ; 11) adriamycin ; 12) artery ; 13) ante ; 14) accommodation ; 15) adenine ; 16) agonist

A1AT : a1-antitrypsin

A/D : analog-to-digital converter

AA : 1) acrylamide ; 2) arachidonic acid ; 3) amino acid (aa) ; 4) adjuvant arthritis

AAA : aromatic amino acid

AAAS : American association for the advancement of science

AABB : American Association of Blood Banks

AACC : American Association of Clinical Chemistry

AACR : American association for cancer research

Aad : 2-aminoadipic acid

AAF : N-acetoxy-acetylaminofluorene

AAHA : azelaic-1-hydroxamate-9-anilide

AAI : average arthritic index

AAMP : angio-associated migratory cell protein

AAnP : anaerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis

AAP : 1) N-acryloylaminopropanol ; 2) Ala-amino-peptidase ; 3) aerobic, anoxygenic, phototrophic (Bacteria)

AAPC : 1,2-arachidonyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine

AAPH : 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane)hydrochloride

AAR : 1) amino acid replacement ; 2) a-adrenergic receptor (aAR)

AAT : a1-antitrypsin

AAV : adeno-associated virus

AB : 1)  antibody (Ab) ; 2) acidic box

AB0 : IA, IB or i blood group (once called ABO, where O stands for ohne = without (Ag))

ABA : abscisic acid

ABAE : adult bovine aortic endothelial (cell)

ABC : 1) ATP-binding cassette ; 2) airway-breathing-circulation (A-B-C) ; 3) avidin-biotin complex

ABCD : 1) airway-breathing-circulation-defribillation (or differential diagnosis) (A-B-C-D) ; 2) activated B cells and dendritic cells (chemokine)

aBCGF : autostimulatory B-cell GF

ABF : ARS-binding factor (Abf)

ABG : arterial blood gases

aBGF : autostimulatory B-cell GF

ABH : adaptive bleaching hypothesis

ABHA : azelaic bishydroxamic acid

ABHD : antibacterial host defense

ABIA : Ab-induced arthritis (AbIA)

Abl : Ab(e)l(son protein tyrosine kinase)

AbMLV : Abelson murine leukemia virus

ABMT : autologous bone marrow transplantation

ABP : 1) androgen binding protein ; 2) actin binding protein

ABPA : allergic bornchopulmonary aspergillosis

ABR : AtBI-2-related

ABS : antibody-binding site

ABTS : 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)

Abu : 2-aminobutyric acid

Abzyme : Ab enzyme

AC : 1) acetyl- (Ac-) ; 2) adenylyl cyclase ; 3) alternating current (ac) ; 4) ante cibum (i.e. before meals) (a.c.) ; 5) actinium (Ac) ; 6) acidic (motif) (Ac) ; 7) anterior chamber

ac4c : 4-acetylcytidine

ACA : anticardiolipin Ab

ACAID : anterior chamber-associated immune deviation

A(-)CAM : zonula adhaerens-specific CAM

ACAT : acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyl transferase

ACC : 1) acetyl-CoA carboxylase ; 2) ATP-gated cation channel ; 3) amylase creatinine clearance ; 4) 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid ; 5) American college of cardiology

ACCP : american college of chest physicians

ACD : 1) active cell death ; 2) acid citrate dextrose (anticoagulant) ; 3) anemia of chronic disease

ACE : 1) ACh esterase ; 2) angiotensin-I converting enzyme ; 3) amplification control element ; 4) adenosine-cytosine-rich element

ACES : 2-[(2-amino-2-oxoethyl)amino]ethanesulfonic acid

ACG : American college of gastroenterology

ACh : acetylcholine

AChE : Ach esterase

AChR : ACh receptor

ACK : acetyl-CoA carboxylase kinase

ACLS : advanced cardiac life support

ACMV : 1) assist-control mode ventilation ; 2) African cassaya mosaic virus

ACN : acetonitrile

AcNPV : Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus

ACOG : American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology

ACP : 1) acyl carrier protein ; 2) acid phosphatase (AcP)

ACPC : (R,R)-trans-2-aminocyclopentanecarboxylic acid

ACS : anomalously replicating consensus sequence

ACSF : artificial CSF

ACT : 1) activated clotting time ; 2) Advanced Cell Technology (Co.)

ACTH : adrenocorticotropic hormone

ACTR : ac(etyl)tr(ansferase)

ACV : acyclovir ([9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl)guanine])

AD : 1) adenovirus (Ad) ; 2) Alzheimer's disease ; 3) alternis diebus (i.e. : alternating days) (a.d.) ; 4) anno domini (i.e. : year of the Master) (A.D.) ; 5) atopic dermatitis

ADA : adenosine deaminase

ADAM : a disintegrin and metalloproteinase

ADCC : Ab-dependent cell-mediated citotoxicity

ADD : adipocyte determination and differentiation factor (i.e. : SREBP)

ADE : 1) adenine (Ade) ; 2) antibody-dependent enhancement

ADEPT : Ab-dependent enzyme-mediated prodrug therapy

ADF : 1) actin depolimerizing factor (domain) ; 2) ATL-derived factor ; 3) adipocyte differentiation factor

ADH : 1) alcohol dehydrogenase ; 2) antidiuretic hormone

ADHD : attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

ADI : acceptable daily intake

ADIF : autocrine differentiation-inhibiting factor

ADL : activities of daily living

ADM : adrenomedullin

ADMA : asymmetric dimethyl-L-Arg

ADME : absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion

ADMP : anti-dorsaling morphogenetic protein

ADNase : anti-DNAse

ADP : adenosine 5'-diphosphate

Ado : adenosine

ADPRT : poly(ADP-ribosyl) transferase

AdoMet : S-adenosylmethionine

AdR : adenine deoxyribose

ADV : Aujeszky's disease virus

ADX : adrenalectomy

ADT : alternate-day treatment

AE : adverse event

AEA : anandamide

AEBC : agriculture and environment biotechnology commission

AEC : 1) atomic energy commission ; 2) 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole

AED : automatic external defibrillator

AEDS : atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome

AEF : 1) amyloidosis enhancing factor ; 2) allogeneic effect factor

AEP : 2-aminoethylphosphonate

AER : apex ectodermic ridge

AET : 2-aminoethylisothiouronium bromide

AF : 1) audio frequency (af) ; 2) antiflammin ; 3) acid-fast ; 4) amniotic fluid ; 5) atrial fibrillation

AFAP : actin-filament-associated protein

AFB : acid-fast bacillus

AFC : 1) 7-amino-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin ; 2) Ab-forming cell ; 3) alkaline fuel cell

AFCAPS : Air Force coronary atherosclerosis prevention study

AFGP : antifreeze glycoprotein

AFK : actin-fragmin kinase

AFLP : 1) amplification fragment length polymorphism ; 2) amplified fragment length polymorphism

AFM : atomic force microscopy

AFP : a1-fetoprotein

AG : 1) antigen (Ag) ; 2) argentum (i.e. : silver) (Ag) ; 3) albumin/globulin ratio (A/G)

AGC : 1) advanced gastric cancer ; 2) a-galactosylceramide (aGC)

AGE : 1) agarose gel electrophoresis ; 2) advanced glycation end-product

AGEPC : acetylglyceryletherphosphorylcholine

AGF : 1) adipocyte GF ; 2) adrenal GF ; 3) autocrine GF

AGID : agar gel immunodiffusion

AGIF : 1) agarose isoelectrofocusing ; 2) adipogenesis inhibitory factor

AGL : acute glomerular nephritis

AGM : aorta, gonads and mesonephros

AGP : a1-acid glycoprotein

AgRP : agouti-related protein

AGSF : autocrine growth stimulatory factor

AH : aconitate hydratase

AHA : 1) acquired hemolytic anemia ; 2) autoimmune hemolytic anemia ; 3) American Heart Association

AHBC : hepatitis B core antibody

AHCPR : agency for health care and practice research

AHD : alveolar hydatid disease

AHF : antihemophilic factor

AHI : Animal Health Institute

AHL : 1) archael histon and TF (domain) ; 2) age-related hearing loss

AHP : afterhyperpolarization

AHPN : 6-[3-(1-adamantyl)-4-hydroxyphneyl]-2-naphtalene carboxylic acid

AHPRBP : 3-amino-1-hydroxy-propylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate (AHPrBP)

AHR : 1) aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) ; 2) airway hyper-reactivity

AHRE : Ahr response element

AHT : antihyaluronidase titer

Ahx : 2-aminohexanoic acid (i.e. : Nle)

AI : 1) adequate intake ; 2) artificial intelligence ; 3) arthritic index

AIA : 1) adjuvant-induced arthritis ; 2) activation-induced apoptosis ; 3) aspirin-induced asthma

AICAR : 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxyamide ribonucleotide

AICD : activation-induced cell death

AID : activation-induced cytidine deaminase

AIDS : acquired immune deficiency syndrome

AIED : autoimmune inner ear disease

AIF : apoptosis inducing factor

AIG : 1) autoimmune gastritis ; 2) anchorage indipendent growth

AIGF : activation-induced GF

AIH : autoimmune hepatitis

AIHA : autoimmune hemolytic anemia

AIM : 1) activation inducer molecule ; 2) astroglia inducing molecule ; 3) apoptosis inhibition expressed by macrophages

AINR : activation-induced nonresponsiveness

AIP : 1) ALG-2 interacting protein ; 2) acute intermittent porphyria ; 3) average intravascular pressure

AIR : 5-aminoimidazhole ribonucleotide

AIRE : autoimmune regulator

AIT : adoptive immunotherapy

AK : actinic keratose

AKA : also known as (a.k.a.)

AKAP : A-kinase (i.e. : PK-A) anchoring protein

AKRMLV : AKR murine leukemia virus

AL : 1) amyloid L (chain) ; 2) aluminium (Al)

ALA : 1) alanine (Ala) ; 2) d-aminolevulinic acid ; 3) a-linolenic acid

ALAK : adherent lymphokine-activated killer cell

ALARA : as low as reasonable achievable

Alb : albumin

ALC : allogeneic lymphocyte cytotoxicity

ALCAM : activated leukocyte CAM

ALDH : acetaldehyde dehydrogenase

ALG : apoptosis-linked gene

ALIFE : artificial life (Alife)

ALIP : abnormal localization of immature precursors

ALK : 1) alkaline (alk) ; 2) activin receptor-like kinase

AlkP : alkaline phosphatase

ALK-PDE : alkaline PDE

ALL : acute lymphoid (or lymphoblastic or lymphocytic) leukaemia

ALLN : N-acetyl-leucinyl-leucinyl-norleucinal

allo- : second amino acid diastereoisomer discovered

ALML/R : anterior lateral microtubule cell left/right

AlP : alkaline phosphatase

ALPC : allophycocyanin

ALPI : alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes

ALPS : autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome

ALR : augmenter of liver regeneration

ALS : 1) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ; 2) acetolactate synthase ; 3) advanced life support ; 4) additional lung sound

ALT : Ala transaminase

alt.dieb. : alternis diebus (i.e. : every other day)

alt.hor. : alternis horis (i.e. : every other hour)

alt.noct. : alternis noctibus (i.e. : every other night)

Alu : Arthrobacter luteus

ALV : avian leukosis (or leukemia) virus

AM : 1) ante meridiem (i.e. : before noon) (a.m. , AM) ; 2) adrenomedullin ; 3) americium (Am) ; 4) amplitude modulation ; 5) amygdala ; 6) amplitude-modulated ; 7) alveolar macrophage ; 8) acetoxymethylester

AMA : 1) against medical advice ; 2) antimitochondrial antibody ; 3) American Medical Association ; 4) apical membrane antigen

AMAC : alternative activated macrophage associated C-C-chemokine

ambo- : mixture of diastereoisomers formed by condensation between DL-amino acids

AMBP : a1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor

AMC : 7-amino-4-methyl coumarin

AMCA : AMC acetate

AMCC : adherent marrow cell culture

AMCF : alveolar macrophage chemotactic factor

AMDGF : alveolar macrophage derived GF

AME : Apparent mineralcorticoid excess (syndrome)

AMF : autocrine motility factor

AMH : anti-Mullerian hormone

AMI : 1) acute myocardial infarction ; 2) Ab-mediated immunity

AMKL : acute megakaryoblastic leukemia

AML : acute myeloid (or myeloblastic or myelogenous) leukaemia

AMLA : antimyolemmal antibody

AMLR : autologous mixed leukocyte reaction

AMLV : Abelson murine leukaemia virus

AMP : 1) ampicillin (amp) ; 2) adenosine 5'-monophosphate

AMPA : 1) aminomethylphosphonic acid ; 2) DL-a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-4-propionic acid

ampholyte : ampho(teric electro)lyte

AMPK : AMP-activated kinase

AMPPK : AMP-activated protein kinase

AMPRK : AMP regulated (protein) kinase

AMR : amphiregulin

AMS : accelerator mass spectrometry

amt : amount

A-MuLV : Abelson murine leukaemia virus

AMV : avian myeloblastosis virus

AN : Aspergillus nidulans (An)

ANA : antinuclear Ag/Ab

AnAnP : anaerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis

ANAP : anionic neutrophil-activating peptide

anat : anatomy, anatomic

ANATO : anaphylotoxin (homologous domain)

ANC : 1) absolute neutrophil count ; 2) adenine nucleotide carrier

ANCA : anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody

anes : anesthesia

ANF : 1) antinuclear factor ; 2) atrial natriuretic factor

Ang : angiopoietin

ANK : ankyrin (repeat)

ANLL : acute non-lymphoid (or non-lymphocytic) leukaemia

ANOVA : analysis of variance

ANP : atrial natriuretic peptide

ANS : anilinonaphtalene sulfonate

ANT : 1) adenine nucleotide translocator ; 2) anterior (ant)

ANX : annexin (repeat)

AOB : accessory olfactory bulb

AOD : autoimmune ovarian dysgenesis

AOM : azoxymethane

AOP : aminooxypentane

AOT : dioctyl sulfosuccinate

AOX : alternative oxidase

APACHE : acute physiology and chronic health evaluation

Apaf : apoptotic protease activating factor

AP : 1) activator protein ; 2) associated protein ; 3) adaptor protein ; 4) apurinic or apyrimidinic (site) ; 5) alkaline phosphatase ; 6) away-from-the pole (motion)

APACHE : acute physiology and chronic health evaluation

APAP : acetaminophen

APC : 1) adenomatous polyposis coli ; 2) anaphase-promoting complex ; 3) Ag-presenting cell ; 4) activated protein C ; 5) (3R,4S)-trans-4-aminopyrrolidine-3-carboxylic acid ; 6) allophycocyanin

APCA : antiparietal cell antibody

APC/C : anaphase-promoting complex / cyclosome

APD : action potential duration

APDS :  ammonium peroxodisulfate

APE : 1) 2-aminopentanoic acid (i.e. : Nva) (Ape) ; 2) AP endonuclease

Apg : autophagy

APH : 3'-aminoglycoside phosphotransferase (Aph)

API : 1) active pharmaceutical ingredient  ; 2) atmospheric pressure ionization

aPKC : atypical PKC

APL : 1) acute promyelocytic leukaemia ; 2) altered peptide ligand

APL-A : Aplysia californica cAMP-dependent (PK)

Apm : aminopimelic acid

APN : aminopeptidase N

APO : 1) apoptosis ; 2) apolipoprotein (apo)

APP : 1) acute phase protein ; 2) amyloid precursor protein ; 3) alveolar proteinosis

AP-PCR : arbitrarily primed PCR

appl : applicable, application, appliance

approx : approximate

APR : acute phase response

APRIL : a proliferation-inducing ligand

APRT : adenine phosphoribosyltransferase

APS : ammonium persulfate

APSAC : acylated plasminogen-streptokinase activator complex

aPTT : activated partial thromboplastin time

APUD : amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation

AQH : aqueous humor (AqH)

AR : 1) androgen receptor ; 2) amphiregulin ; 3) argon (Ar) ; 4) acyclic retinoid ; 5) agonist-receptor (complex) ; 6) adrenergic receptor

ARA : 1) arabinose (Ara) ; 2) antireticulin antibody

ara(-)A : 1-b-D-arabinofuranosyladenine

ara(-)C : 1-b-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine

ARAM : Ag recognition activation motif

ARB : 1) angiotensin receptor blocker ; 2) average relative binding

ARC : 1) apoptosis repressor with CARD domain ; 2) AIDS-related complex ; 3) aerobic respiration control (Arc) ; 4) arcuate nucleus ; 5) absolute reticulocyte count

ARD : absolute risk difference

ARDS : acute respiratory distress syndrome

ARE : 1) activation response element ; 2) AU-rich element ; 3) antioxidant response element

ARF : 1) alternate reading frame of the ink4a locus (murine p19, human p14) ; 2) ADP-ribosylation factor ; 3) auxin-response factor ; 4) acute renal failure

ARG : 1) arginine (Arg) ; 2) autoradiography

ARI : 1) absolute risk increase ; 2) acute respiratory infection

ARM : Armadillo-like (domain)

ARMS : amplification refractary mutation system

ArMV : arabis mosaic nepovirus

ARNO : ARF nucleotide-binding-site opener

ARR : 1) absolute risk reduction ; 2) arrestin (Arr)

ARRE : Ag-responsive element

ARS : 1) p-azophenylarsonate (Ars) ; 2) autonomously replicating sequence

ART : 1) assisted reproduction technologies ; 2) artemin ; 3) antiretroviral therapy

AS : 1) additive solution ; 2) antisense ; 3) arsenic (As) ; 4) alternatively spliced

ASA : 1) advanced sequence analysis ; 2) antisarcolemmal antibody ; 3) acetylsalicylic acid

ASAP : 1) allele specific associated primer ; 2) as soon as possible ; 3) Arf-GTPase-activating protein

ASBVd : avocado sunblotch Vd

ASAC : 1) antibody-secreting cell ; 2) achaete-scute (AS-C) ; 3) adult stem cell

ASCVD : atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

ASF : airway surface fluid

ASFV : African swine fever virus

ASGPR : asialoglycoprotein receptor

ASHG : American society of human genetics

ASI : active specific immunization / immunotherapy

ASIC : acid-sensing ion channel

ASK : 1) apoptosis signal-regulating kinase ; 2) antistreptokinase

ASKA : antiskeletal antibody

ASLO : antistreptolysin O

ASLV : avian sarcoma and leukosis virus

ASM : airway smooth muscle

ASMA : antismooth muscle antibody

Asn : asparagine

ASO : 1) allele-specific oligonucleotide ; 2) antistreptolysine O ; 3) arteriosclerosis obliterans

Asp : aspartic acid

ASPCA : American society for the prevention of cruelty to animals

AS-PCR : allele specific PCR

ASR : area specific resistivity

ASSURE B : allele specific sequencing using restriction enzyme and biotinylation

AST : Asp transaminase

ASV : avian sarcoma virus

Asx : Asp or Asn

AT : 1) angiotensin II (receptor) ; 2) ataxia-telangiectasia ; 3) atomic (at.) ; 4) antithrombin

ATA : aspirin-tolerant asthma

ATAC : activation-induced, T cell-derived, and chemokine-related

ATCase : aspartate transcarbamoylase

ATCC : American type cell culture

ATE : acetate-Tris-EDTA

ATF : 1) activating transcription factor ; 2) aminoterminal fragment

ATL : 1) ascending thin limb ; 2) adult T-cell leukaemia

ATLD : AT-like disorder

ATM : 1) ataxia-telangiectasia mutated ; 2) atmosphere (atm)

ATP : 1) autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura ; 2) adenosine 5'-triphosphate

ATPase : adenosine triphosphatase

ATPgS : 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (ATPgS)

ATR : ATM + Rad3-related protein kinase

ATRA : 1) angiotensin II-receptor antagonist ; 2) all-trans retinoic acid

ATS : American thoracic society

atto : 10-18

ATV : 1) automatically triggered ventilator ; 2) automatic transport ventilator

AU : aurum (i.e. : gold) (Au)

AUC : 1) area under the cruve ; 2) analytical ultracentrifugation

Aut : autophagy

AuxRE : auxin-response elements

AV : 1) average (av) ; 2) atrioventricular (node)

AVG : arterovenous graft

AVM : anterior ventral microtubule cell

AVP : Arg-vasopressin

AZ : antizyme

AZT : 3'-azydo-3'-deoxythymidine

- B -

# A B C DEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

B : 1) Asx ; 2) base (b) ; 3) basic (b) ; 4) bone marrow (lymphocyte) ; 5) bacterial (b) ; 6) follows A in the alphabet (i.e. : C or G or T in base codes) ; 7) boron

B2M : b2-microglobulin (b2m)

B41 : band 4.1 homologues

BA : 1) bronchial asthma ; 2) barium (Ba)

BAC : 1) bacterial artificial chromosome ; 2) blood alcohol concentration ; 3) basal acid concentration

BACE : b-site APP-cleaving enzyme

bact : bacterium (-ia)

Bad : Bcl-xL/Bcl-2 associated death promoter

BAE : bovine aortic endothelial (cell)

BAEC : bovine aortic endothelial cell

Baf : bafilomycin

BAFF : B-cell-activating factor of the TNF family

Bag : Bcl-2 associated athanogene (domain)

BAH : Bromo adjacent homology (domain)

Bak : Bcl-2 antagonist/killer

BAL : 1) British anti-Lewisite ; 2) bronchoalveolar lavage ; 2) blood alcohol level

bAla : b-alanine

BALF : bronchoalveolar lavage fluid

BALT : bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue

BAM : 1) Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (Bam) ; 2) bovine adrenal medulla

B[a]P : benzo [a]pyrene

BAPTA : 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid

BAPTA-AM : BAPTA acetoxymethyl ester

BAR : b-adrenergic receptor (bAR)

BARK : bAR kinase (bARK)

bAS : b-amyrin synthase

Bax : Bcl-2 associated x protein

BAY 11-7085 : (E)-3-[(4-t-butylphenylsulfonyl]-2-propenitrile

BB : 1) base buffer ; 2) blood bank

BBAT : buffered Brucella Ag test

BBB : 1) blood-brain barrier ; 2) bundle branch block

BBC : British broadcasting corporation

BBE : berberine bridge enzyme

BBT : basal body temperature

BCA : B-cell attractant

BCAA : branched chain amino acid

BCBL : body cavity-based lymphoma

BCC : 1) basal cell carcinoma ; 2) body-centered-cube (bcc)

BCD : bacterial carbon-demand

BCDF : B-cell differentiation factor

BCECF : 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein

BCG : bacille Calmette-Guérin

BChl : bacteriochlorophyll

BCIP : 5-Br-4-Cl-3-indoyl phophate

Bcl : B-cell lymphoma

BCLL : B-cell CLL

BCM : bovine cervical mucus

BCMA : B-cell maturation antigen

BCP : 1) birth control pills ; 2) blood cell profile

Bcr : 1) breakpoint cluster region ; 2) B-cell receptor (BcR)

BCVA : best corrected visual acuity

BCZ : B cell zone

BD : Bromo domain

BDA : boomerang DNA amplification

BDE : bromo diphenyl ether

BDL : bursal duict ligation

bDNA : branch DNA

BDNF : brain-derived neurotrophic factor

BDNT : brain-derived neurotrophin

BDS : biological detection system

BE : 1) base excess ; 2) beryllium

BEACH : Beige and CHS

BEC : Bose-Einstein condensate

Beclin : Bcl-2-interacting protein

BEGM : bronchial epithelial growth medium

BER : base excision repair

BES : 17-b-estradiol

BETA : b-cell E-box transactivator

BF : bone fragment

BFA : brefeldin A

BFK : bovine fetal kidney

Bfl : Bcl-2 homolog isolated from a human fetal liver

BFP : 1) bundle-forming pilus ; 2) blue fluorescent protein

BFU : 1) blue-forming unit ; 2) burst-forming unit

BGD : bromcresol green dye

BGE : 1) bacterial growth effciency ; 2) background electrolyte

BGH : bovine growth hormone

BGO : bismuth germanate

BGP : biliary glycoprotein

BGPS : beef extract-glucose-peptone-serum (medium)

BGR : beta-glucan receptor (bGR)

BH : Bcl-2 homolog domain

BH4 : tetrahydrobiopterin

BHA : butylated hydroxyanisol

BHK : baby hamster kidney (cell line)

BHIB : brain-heart infusion broth

BHR : bronchial hyper-responsiveness

BHT : butylated hydroxytoluene

BI : 1) Bax inhibitor ; 2) bioinformatics

BIA : biomolecular interaction analysis

BIALO : binocular indirect argon laser ophthalmoscopy

bib : bibe (i.e. : drink)

Bid : 1) BH-3 interacting DD protein ; 2) bis in die (i.e. : twice a day) (b.i.d.)

BIDS : biological integrated detection system

Bik : Bcl-2 interacting killer

BIL : backcross introgression lines

BIND : biomolecular interaction network database

biol : biologic, biology

BiP : binding protein

BIPA : Birman's intrapharyngeal airway

BIR :  Baculovirus IAP repeat

BIRN : biomedical informatics research network

BIS : N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide

BISTRIS : 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)2,2',2" nitryltriethanol (buffer)

BIV : bovine immunodeficiency virus

BK : bradykinin

BL : Burkitt's lymphoma

BLAST : basic local alignment search tool

BLC : B-lymphocyte chemoattractant (or chemokine)

BLE : basal level element

BLIMP : B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein

Blk : Bik-like killer

BLM : 1) Bloom syndrome (gene/protein) ; 2) black lipid membrane ; 3) bleomycin sulfate

BLNK : B-cell linker

BLOSUM : blocks substitution matrix

BLP : buffered lactose peptone

BLS : basic life support

BLV : bovine leukemia virus

BM : 1) basement membrane ; 2) bone marrow ; 3) binding medium

BMA : British medical association

BMAC : B-cell and monocyte-activating chemokine

BMC : 1) bone marrow cell ; 2) bone marrow chimera

BMD : 1) bone mineral density ; 2) Becker muscular distrophy

BMDC : bone marrow-derived dendritic cell

BMDDC : bone marrow-derived dendritic cell

BME : 1) bovine microvascular endothelial (cell) ; 2) b-mercaptoethanol (bme)

BMEC : bone marrow microvascular endothelial cell

BMHP : bromo-mercury-hydroxypropane

BMI : body-mass index

BMK : big MAP kinase

BMM : bone marrow-derived macrophage

BMMC : bone-marrow-derived mast cell

BMP : bone morphogenetic protein

BMR : basal metabolic rate

BMT : bone marrow transplantation

BMZ : basement membrane zone

BNaC : brain Na+ channel

BN buffer : bicarbonate-Nonidet P-40 buffer

BNC : brain Na+ channel

BNFA : brefeldin A

BNP : brain (-derived) natriuretic (poly)peptide

BO : 1) bronchiolitis obliterans ; 2) bacterioopsin (bO)

BOD : 1) Bcl-2-related ovarian death gene ; 2) biochemical oxygen demand (B.O.D.)

BOGSAT : bunch of guys sat around a table

Bok : Bcl-2 related ovarian killer

BOR : broncho-oto-renal (syndrome)

BOS : bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome

BowB : Bowman-Birk type proteinase inhibitor

BP : 1) binding protein ; 2) base-pair (bp) ; 3) before present (B.P.) ; 4) boiling point (b.p.) ; 5) blood pressure ; 6) birch pollen ; 7) bullous pemphigoid

BPA : burst promoving activity

BPAT : buffered plate Ag test

BPDE : benzo[a]pyrene-diol-epoxide

BPDS : 4,7-bipheniyl-1,10-phenanthroline-disulphonic acid

BPES : blepharophimosis ptosis epicanthus inversus syndrome

BPG : D-2,3-bisphosphoglycerate

BPH : benign prostatic hypertrophy

BPheo : bacteriopheophytin

BphP : bacteriophytochrome

BPI : bactericidal-permeability-increasing protein

BPS : branch-point sequence

BPTI : bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor

BPV : bovine papillomavirus

Bq : becquerel (unit)

BRAF : BRCA2-associated factor

BRAK : breast and kidney derived chemokine

BRCA : br(east and ovarian) ca(ncer growth-suppressor protein)

BRCT : BRCA1 C-terminal (domain)

BrdU : 5-bromodeoxyuridine

BrdUrd : 5-bromodeoxyuridine

BRET : bioluminescence resonance energy transfer

BRIGHT : B cell regulator of IgH transcription (Bright)

BRK : 1) brinker (Brk) ; 2) baby rat kidney

BRLZ : basic region leucine zipper

BRM : biological response modifier

BRUCE : BIR-containing Ub-conjugating enzyme

BrUra : bromouracil

BRZ : brassinazole

BS : 1) Bloom syndrome ; 2) blood sugar

BSA : 1) bovine serum albumin ; 2) bulked segregant analysis ; 3) body surface area

BSAB : bispecific antibody (BsAb)

BSAP : B cell specific activator protein

BSDB : bispecific diabody (BsDb)

BSE : bovine spongiform encephalopathy

BSF : bovine serum factors

BSK : Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly (medium)

BSL : blood sugar level

BSM : bisulfite-modified

BSO : buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine

BSP : bone syaloprotein

BSS : Bernard-Soulier syndrome

Bst : Bacillus stearothermophilus

BSV : bovine syncytial virus

bt : Bacillus thuringiensis

BTB : Broad-complex +Tramtrack + Bric a brac (domain)

Btf : Bcl-2-associated transcription factor

BTK : Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk)

BTSM : bovine tracheal smooth muscle

BTU : British thermal unit

BU : 1) 5-Br-uracyl ; 2) butyl (Bu) ; 3) busulfan (Bu)

BUB : benimidazole unaffected budding

BUCHE : butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE)

BUN : blood urea nitrogen

BupdGTP : butylphenyl dGTP

BVDV : bovine viral diarrhoea virus

BVM : bag-valve-mask

BW : 1; biological weapon ; 2) body weight

BWC : biological weapons convention

BWSV : black-widow spider venom

Bx : biopsy

Bz : benzoyl

BzATP : 1)  3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl) ATP ; 2) 2'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl) ATP

- C -

# A B C DEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

C : 1) cellular (c/c) ; 2) cytosolic (c) ; 3) complementary (c) ; 4) centi (c) ; 5) catalytic subunit ; 6) 3',5'-cyclic, cycle (c) ; 7) cytidine ; 8) Cys ; 9) Cys rich (domain) ; 10) complement protein ; 12) Ca2+-binding ; 13) haploid DNA content per cell ; 14) Celsius (degree) (°C) ; 15) constant (region) ; 16) coulomb (unit) ; 17) cum (i.e. : with) (c) ; 18) centum (i.e. : one hundred) ; 19) cervical vertebra ; 20) cytosine ; 21) cytoplasmic domain (C) ; 22) copyright (©)  ; 23) core (protein) ; 24) chimeric (c)

C' : activated complement

C/EBP : CCAAT-enhancer binding protein

C4H : cinnamate 4-hydroxylase

CA : 1) chemical abstract ; 2) carrier ampholytecadherin (repeat) ; 3) cardiac arrest ; 4) chronologic age ; 5) carcinoma (Ca) ; 6) calcium (Ca) ; 7) capsid (protein) ; 8) cold agglutinin ; 9) classically activated ; 10) conalbumin ; 11) carbonic anhydrase

CaBP : CaM-binding protein

CACD : chronic active Chron's disease

CACI : computer-assisted continuous infusion

CAD : 1) caspase-activated DNase ; 2) carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase + ATCase + dihydroorotase complex ; 3) coronary artery disease

CADD : computer-assisted drug design

CadhD : cadherin domain

cADPR : cyclic ADP-ribose

CAE : 1) childhood absence epilepsy ; 2) capillary array electrophoresis ; 3) chloro-acetate esterase

CAEV : caprine arthritis encephalitis virus

CAI : 1) carbonic anhydrase inhibitor ; 2) Ca2+ uptake inhibitor

cAK: cAMP-dependent protein kinase

CAK : Cdk-activating kinase

CAL : 1) cortical ascending limb ; 2) calorie (cal) ; 3) kilocalorie (Cal)

CALC : calculated (Calc., calc.)

CALLA : common acute lympho(cyto)blastic leukaemia Ag

CALM : clathrin assembly lymphoid-myeloid leukaemia protein

CALS : continuous additional lung sound

CAML : calcium-modulator and cyclophilin ligand

CAM : 1) cell-adhesion molecule ; 2) calmodulin (CaM) ; 3) Crassulacean acid metabolism (plants) , 4) chorioallantoic membrane

CaM-K : Ca2+/CaM–dependent kinase

CAMP : camptothecin

CaMV : cauliflower mosaic virus

CAN : calcineurin (CaN)

CAP : 1) CD40-associated protein ; 2) catabolite (gene) activating protein ; 3) controlled atmosphere packaging

CAPE : caffeic acid phenetyl ester

CAPS : 1) cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences ; 2) 3-(cyclohexylamino)-1-propanesulfonic acid ; 3) capsules (caps)

cAR : cAMP receptor

CARD : caspase activation and recruitment domain.

CARDIAK : CARD-containing ICE associated kinase

CARE : cholesterol and recurrent events (study)

CARMEN : CARD-containing molecule enhancing NF-kB

CARS : compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome

CART : 1) Cys-rich domain associated to RING and TRAF protein ; 2) cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript

CAS : 1) cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein ; 2) Crk–associated substrate (Cas)

CASP : colon ascendens stent peritonitis

Caspase : cysteinyl aspartic acid-protease

CAST : 1) cardiac arrhythmia suppression trial ; 2) cyclic amplification and selection of target

CAT : 1) chloramphenicol acetyltransferase ; 2) catalase ; 3) computer-assisted axial tomography ; 4) critically appraised topics

CATERPILLER : CARD, transcription enhancer, R (purine)-binding, pyrin, lots of leucin repeats

CAV : 1) cavity (cav) ; 2) coxsackie A virus ; 3) cardiac allograft vasculopathy

CB : 1) costimulatory blockade ; 2) (umbilical) cord blood

CBA : 1) cecal bacterial antigen  ; 2) cytometric bead array

CBB : 1) calcium chaneel blocker ; 2) Coomassie brilliant blue

CBC : 1) cap-binding complex ; 2) complete blood (cell) count

CBCB : center for bioinformatics and computational biology

CBD : 1) cellulose binding domain ; 2) chronic beryllium disease ; 3) corticobasal degranulation

CBDCOM : chemical and biological defence command

CBF : 1) CCAAT box binding factor ; 2) cerebral blood flow ; 3) core binding factor

CBG : corticosteroid-binding globulin

CBHA : m-carboxy cinnamic acid bishydroxamic acid

CBIRF : chemical biological incident response force

CBLB : Casitas B-lineage lymphoma b (Cblb)

CBMC : 1) cord blood-derived mast cell ; 2) cord blood mononuclear cell

CBP : 1) CREB binding protein ; 2) cap-binding protein ; 3) Csk-binding protein (CBP / Cbp)

CBS : cystathionine b-synthase (domain)

CBV : coxsackie B virus

CC : 1) coiled-coil (domain) ; 2) chief complaint ; 3) cubic centimetre (cc) ; 4) carnitine carrier ; 5) corpus callosum

CCB : calcium channel blocker

CCCV : coconut cadang-cadang viroid

CCD : 1) countercurrent distribution ; 2) cytochalasin D

ccDNA : closed circular DNA

cccDNA : covalently-closed circular DNA

CCD : charge-coupled device

CCE : 1) counter current electrophoresis ; 2) central European encephalitis (virus)

CCG : cell cycle control gene

CCH : carbachol (CCh)

CCHF : Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (virus)

CCI : 1) chronic constrictive injury ; 2) corrected count increment

CCK : 1) cholecystokinin ; 2) colon carcinoma kinase

CCLR : cell culture lysis reagent

CCM : chemical cleavage of mismatch

CCMV : cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

CCP : complement control proteins (domain)

CCR : 1) C-C chemokine receptor ; 2) central conserved region (in the Pospiviroidae genomes)

CCT : cortical collecting tubule

CCU : critical care unit

CCX : cerebral cortex

CD : 1) cluster of differentiation (or cluster determinant or cluster designation) ; 2) circular dichroism ; 3) Chromo domain ; 4) common docking (site) ; 5) cyclodextrin ; 6) compact disk ; 7) Chron's disease ; 8) cytidine deaminase ; 9) cycle duration

CDC : 1) cell division cycle (CDC/Cdc) ; 2) centers for disease control (and prevention) ; 3) complement-dependent cytotoxicity

CDCA : chenodeoxycholic acid

CDCV : common disease/common variant (CD/CV) (hypothesis)

CDE : cord blood-derived eosinophil

CDH : cadherin (Cdh)

CDK : cyclin-dependent (or cell division) serine/threonine kinase

CDKI : CDK inhibitor

CD-MPR : cation-dependent Man-6-phosphate receptor

CDP : 1) cytidine 5'-diphosphate ; 2) chlordiazepoxide ; 3) CCAAT displacement protein

CDPA : calcium dipicolonic acid

CDR : 1) complimentarity determining region ; 2) common deleted region

CDRA : common disease/rare allele (CD/RA) (hypothesis)

CDS : cell dissociation solution

CE : capillary electrophoresis

CEA : 1) cockroach extract Ag ; 2) carcinoembryonic Ag

CEC : capillary electrochromatography

CED : ce(ll) d(eath)

CEF : chicken embryo fibroblast

CEN : centromere

cent : centigrade

CEP : circulating endothelial progenitor (cell)

CEPH : centre d'étude des polymorphisme humaine

CETE : central European tick-borne encephalitis

CF : 1) cystic fibrosis ; 2) complement fixation (test)

CFA : 1) complete Freund's adjuvant ; 2) carbonate fluoroapatite

CFC : 1) colony-forming cell ; 2) chlorofluorocarbons

CFCS : cell-free culture supernatant

CFDA : carboxyfluorescein diacetate

CFF : critical flicker fusion

CFIDS : chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome

CFLP : cleavage fragment lenght polymorphism

CFM : cystic fibrosis modifier

CFR : case fatality rate

CFSE : 5- (and 6-)carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester

CFTR : cystic fybrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

CFU : colony-forming unit

CFU-E : CFU for erythrocytes

CFU-G : CFU for granulocytes

CFU-GM : CFU for granulocytes and monocytes

CFU-M : CFU for monocytes

CFV : cryopreserved femoral vein

CG : capsular glaucoma

CG : chronic granulomatosis

CGD : chronic granulomatosis disease

CGG : chicken g-globulin

CGH : comparative genome hybridization

CGMP : current good manufacturing practice ; 2) cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate

CGN  : cis-Golgi network

CGRP : calcitonin gene-related peptide

CH : 1) Charriére (unit) (Ch) ; 2) calponin homology (domain) ; 3) Chido (blood group Ag) (Ch)

CHAPS : 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate

CHARTPCR : chromatin accessibility using RT-PCR (CHART-PCR)

ChAT : choline acetyltransferase

CHB : congenital heart block

CHD : 1) congenital heart disease ; 2) childhood disease ; 3) coronary heart disease

CHEF : 1) contour-clamped homogeneous electric field ; 2) Chinese hamster embryo fibroblast

CHES : 2-(N-cyclohexylamino)ethane sulfonic acid

CHF : congestive heart failure

CHI : 1) chronic HIV infection ; 2) chalcone isomerase

CHIP : chromatine immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP)

Chk : checkpoint kinase

Chl : chlorophyll

chm5u : 5-(carboxyhydroxymethyl)uridine

CHO : 1) C-terminal aldehyde ; 2) Chinese hamster ovary (cell)

CHOP : C/EBP homologous protein

CHP : combined heat and power

CHR : 1) chalcone (polyketide) reductase ; 2) chronic (chr)

CHROMO : chromatin organization modifier (domain)

CHS : 1) chalcone synthase ; 2) contact hypersensitivity

ChSh : Chromo shadow (domain)

ChtBD : chitin binding domain

CHX : cycloheximide

CI : 1) chloroform and isoamyl alcohol (mixture) ; 2) curie (unit) (Ci) ; 3) ChemIonization ; 4) confidence interval

CIA : 1) collagen-induced arthritis ; 2) chromatin immunoprecipitation and array ; 3) central intelligence agency

CIC : 1) circulating immune complex ; 2) cold-induced constriction

CICR : Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release

CID : 1) chemically induced dimerization ; 2) collision-induced dissociation

CIDP : chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

CIDR : Cys-rich interdomain region

CIEF : capillary isolectrofocusing

CIEP : counter immunoelectrophoresis

CIGTS : collaborative initial glaucoma treatment study

CIHR : Canadian Institutes of Health Research

CIITA : class II transactivator

CI-MPR : cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor

CIN : 1) chromosomal instability ; 2) cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

CIP : 1) Cdk-interacting protein ; 2) calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase ; 3) Cahn-Ingold-Prelog (convention)

CIPER : CED-3/ICH-1 prodomain homologous, E10-like regulator

CIS : 1) cytokine inducing substance ; 2) cytokine inducible SH2-containing protein ; 3) carcinoma in situ

CISH : chromogenic ISH

Cit : citrulline

CITED : CBP/p300-interacting transactivator with ED-rich tail

CJD : Creutzfeld-Jakob disease

CK : 1) casein kinase ; 2) creatin(in)e kinase ; 3) calf kidney (cells)

CKI : Cdk inhibitor

CL : 1) cardiolipin ; 2) chemiluminescence ; 3) confidence limits

CLAG : cytoadherence-linked asexual gene

CLAP : CARD-like apoptotic protein

CLB : blood clearance (CLb)

CLC : (voltage-gated) chloride channel

CLCA : Ca2+-activated chloride channel

CLDT : cytolethal distending toxin

CLECT : C-type lectin

CLH : clathrin heavy chain (repeat homology)

CLIC : chloride intracellular channel

CLIP : 1) corticotropin-like intermediate peptide ; 2) class II linked inviariant chain peptide

CLL : chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

CLN : cervical lymph node

CLNS : nucleotide sensitive chloride channel

CLP : 1) cecal ligation and puncture ; 2) common lymphoid progenitor

CLS : capillary-like structure

CM : 1) O-carboxymethyl ; 2) cell membrane ; 3) cras mane (i.e. : tomorrow morning) (c.m.) ; 4) 2'-O-methylcytidine (cm) ; 5) conditioned medium ; 6) cow's milk ; 7) cardiac myosin ; 8) cerebral malaria ; 9) costimulatory molecule ; 10) complete medium

cm5u : 5-carbamoylmethyluridine

CMA : cow's milk allergy

CMAP : compound motor action potential

CMB : cosmic microwave background

CMC : 1) carboxymethylcellulose ; 2) critical micelle concentration

CME : continuing medical education

CMFDA : 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate

CMGT : chromosome-mediated gene transfer

CMI : 1) cell-mediated immunity ; 2) charge-modification index

c/min : cycles per minute

CMK : chloromethylketone

CML : chronic myeloid (myelocytic or myelogenous) leukaemia

CMLP : common myelo-lymphoid progenitor

CMM : cutaneous malignant melanoma

CMML : chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia

cmnm5s2u : 5-carboxymethylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine

cmnm5u : 5-carboxymethylaminomethyluridine

CMOAT : canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter

CMOS : complementary metal-oxide silicon

CMP : 1) common myeloid progenitor ; 2) cytidine 5'-monophosphate

CMPD : camphomelyc displasy

CMR : cardiovascular magnetic resonance

CMS . cytoplasmic male sterility

CMT : Charcot-Marie-Tooth (disease)

CMV : 1) controlled mechanical ventilationcytomegalovirus

c-Myb : (avian) my(elo)b(lastosis virus oncogene)

CNG : cyclic nucleotide-gated (cation channel)

CNP : C-type natriuretic peptide

CMV : cytomegalovirus

cNMP : cyclic NMP (binding domain)

CNA : copy number abnormality

CNBR : cyanogen bromide (CNBr)

CNF : cytotoxic necrotizing factor

CNP : C-type natriuretic peptide

CNR : cell nuclear replacement

CNS : 1) conserved noncoding sequence ; 2) central nervous system

CNT : connecting tubule

CNTF : ciliary neurotrophic factor

CNV : choroidal neovascularization

CNX  : connexin (homologues)

CO : 1) complement ; 2) cardiac output

CoA : 1) coenzyme A  ; 2) coactivator

COD : conditions of discharge

COLFI : fibrillar collagens (CTD)

CoMFA : comparative molecular field analysis

CoMo : control morpholino oligonucleotide

comp : compound

COMT : catechol-O-methyltransferase

ConA : concanavalin A

conc(.) : concentration, concentrated

cond : condition

const : constant

COP : 1) coating protein ; 2) coefficient of parentage

COPD : chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

COPP : cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP)

COR : corepressor (CoR)

CORT : corticosterone

COS : cohesive site

COSY : correlation spectroscopy

COTS : commercial off-the-shelf (technology)

COUP : chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter

COX : cyclooxygenase

CoQ : coenzyme Q

CP : 1) chloroplastic (cp) ; 2) chemically pure ; 3) cyclophosphamide ; 4) connecting peptide ; 5) control peptide

CPAN : caspase activated nuclease

CPAP : continuous positive airway pressure

CPCR : cardio-pulmonary-cerebral reanimation

CPD : 1) citrate phosphate dextrose (anticoagulant) ; 2) compound (cpd)

CPDA : CPD adenine (anticoagulant)

CPE : 1) cytopathic effect ; 2) carboxypeptidase E

CPEB : cytoplasmic polyadenylation-element-binding protein

CPI : 1) cyclopropapyrroloindole ; 2) C-kinase activated phosphatase inhibitor

CPK : 1) creatine phosphokinase ; 2) Corey, Pauling and Kultun (colouring scheme for elements)

cPKC : conventional PKC

CPLM : Cys-peptone-liver infusion maltose (medium)

CPM : 1) connecting peptide motif ; 2) counts per minute (cpm)

cpn : chaperonin

CPP : cell-penetrating peptide

CPPD : calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate

CPR : cardio-pulmonary resuscitation

cps : counts per second

CPSF : cleavage/polyadenylation specificity factor

CPT : 1) camptothecin ; 2) carnithine-palmitoyl transferase ; 3) current procedural terminology

CQ : chloroquine

CR : 1) complement component receptor ; 2) conserved region ; 3) caloric restriction; 4) complete remission ; 5) complete response

CRA : cockroach antigen

CRAC : cytoplasmic regulator of adenylyl cyclase

CRACC : CD2-like receptor activating cytotoxic cells

CRADD : caspase and RIP adaptor with DD

CRBP : cellular retinol-binding protein

CRC : colorectal cancer

CRD : 1) carbohydrate-recognition domain ; 2) cysteine-rich domain

CRE : cAMP RE

CREB : CRE-B(P)

CREBBP : CREB-binding protein

CREM : cAMP response element modulator

CREST : carcinoid, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysfunction, sclerodactily and teleangectasia

CRF : corticotropin-releasing factor

CRH : corticotropin-releasing hormone

CRIB : Cdc42 and Rac interactive binding (motif)

CRK : chicken retroviral kinase (Crk)

CRL : complete response letter

CRLR : calcitonin receptor-like receptor

Crm : 1) cytokine response modifier ; 2) cross-reacting material

cRNA : complementary RNA

Cro : cI repressor off

CRP : 1) cAMP receptor protein ; 2) catabolite repressor protein ; 3) C-reactive protein ; 4) cysteine-rich protein ; 5) cecal ligation/puncture ; 6) complement-regulatory protein

CRS : 1) cytoplasmic retention signal ; 2) congenital rubella syndrome

CRT : 1) cathode ray tube ; 2) choice reaction time

CS : 1) Cockayne syndrome ; 2) catalytic subunit or site (CS) ; 3) cytrate synthase ; 4) circumsporozoitic ; 5) conscious, consciousness (Cs) ; 6) chorionic somatomammotropin ; 7) culture supernatant ; 8) contact sensitivity

CSA : 1) cyclosporin A (CsA) ; 2) colony-stimulating activity ; 3) chondroitin sulphate A ; 4) common structural antigens

CSC : cardiac stem cell

CSD : C-terminal shadow CD (Chromo domain)

CSF : 1) colony-stimulating factor; 2) cytostatic factor ; 3) cerebrospinal fluid

CSGE : conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis

CSH : cyclosporin H (CsH)

CSI : 1) COX-2-specific inhibitor ; 2) classical strain improvement

CSHL : Cold Spring Harbor laboratories

CSK : C-terminal c-Src kinase

CSNP : coding SNP (cSNP)

CSP : 1) cold shock protein (domain) ; 2) circumsporozoite protein

CSR : 1) class-switch recombination ; 2) chlorsulfonTM resistance (csr)

CSS : Canale-Smith syndrome

CstF : cleavage stimulatory factor

CSV : chicken syncytial virus

CSY : casein-sucrose-yeast (agar)

CT : 1) C-terminal cystine knot-like (domain) ; 2) computerized (or computed) tomography ; 3) calcitonin ; 4) chordae tendinae ; 5) cholera toxin ; 6) cycle threshold (Ct / ct) ; 7) cancer-testis ; 8) competitive template

CTAB : cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

CTACK : cutaneous T-cell-activating (or attracting) chemokine (C-TACK)

CTAL : cortical thick ascending limb

CTALH : cortical thick ascending limb of Henle (cTALH)

CTAP : connective tissue activating peptide

CTCK : C-terminal cystine knot-like (domain)

CTCL : cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

CTD : carboxy-terminal domain

CTD-K : (RNA polymerase II) CTD kinase

CTE : constitutive transport element

CTF : 1) CCAAT-binding transcription factor ; 2) Colorado tick fever

CTFV : Colorado tick fever virus

CTL : 1) C-type lectin ; 2) cytotoxic T lymphocyte

CTLA : cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated Ag

CTMC : connective tissue mast cell

CTMP : carboxy-terminus modulator protein

CTNKP : common T/NK cell progenitor (C-TNKP)

CTP : 1) cytidine 5'-triphosphate ; 2) chloroplast transit peptide

CTRP : CSP-TRAP-related protein

CTT : compensatory tracking task

CTX : 1) ciguatera toxin ; 2) Vibrio cholerae toxin

CU : 1) cubic (cu) ; 2) cuprum (i.e. : copper) (Cu)

CUB : C1r/s + uEGF + BMP1 (domain)

CUX : cut-like protein x (Cux)

CV : 1) coefficient of variation ; 2) cardiovascular ; 3) conduction velocity

CVA : cerebrovascular accident

CVC : 1) central venous catheter ; 2) cerebrovascular conductance ; 3) cerebrovascular complication

CVD : cardiovascular disease

CVIA : computer-assisted video image analysis

CVID : common variable immunodeficiency

CVO : circumventricular organ

CVS : 1) cardiovascular system ; 2) chorionic villi sample

CWD : chronic wasting disease

CWS : chemical warfare service

Cx : connexin

CXCR : CXC chemokine receptor

CXR : chest X-ray

CY : 1) cystatin-like (domain) ; 2) calendar year

CY3 : indocarbocyanine (Cy3)

Cya : cysteic acid

Cyd : cytidine

Cyc : cyclin

CYCc : (adenylyl/guanylyl) cyc(lase),  catalytic (domain)

Cyp . cyclophilin

Cys : cysteine or half-cystine

Cyt : 1) cytochrome (cyt) ; 2) cytosine

CZE : capillary zone electrophoresis

CZT : cadmium-zinc telluride

- D -

# A B C D E F G HIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

D : 1) di (d) ; 2) deoxy (d) ; 3) Asp ; 4) displacement (loop) ; 5) diversity (segment) ; 6) Drosophila melanogaster homologous (d) ; 7) day(s) ; 8) distilled or deionized (d) ; 9) change in, change of (D) ; 10) density (d) ; 11) absorbed dose (D) ; 12) dosis (i.e. : dose) (d) ; 13) dorsal vertebra ; 14) double covalent bond position in a FFA starting from carboxyl group (D) ; 15) follows C in the alphabet (i.e. : A or G or T in base codes) ; 16) 5,6-dihydrouridine (D/d) ; 17) deci

D4T : 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxythymidine

DA : 1) dalton (unit) (Da) ; 2) daughterless (da) ; 3) dopamine

DAA : DNA alkylating agent

DAB : 1) 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (Dab) ; 2) 3,3-diaminobenzidine (tetrahydrochloride) ; 3) single-domain Ab (dAb)

DAD : 1) diffuse alveolar damage ; 2) delayed afterdepolarization

DAF : 1) decay accelerating factor ; 2) DNA amplification fingerprinting

DAG : sn-1,2-diacyl glycerol

DAGK : DAG kinase

DALS : discontinuous additional lung sound

DALY : disability-adjusted life years

DAMD : direct amplification of minisatellite-region DNA

DAMGO : [D-Ala2,N-MePhe4,Gly5-ol]enkephalin

DAMP : 3-(2,4-dinitroanilino)-3´-amino-N-methyldipropylamine

DAP : 1) death associated protein kinase ; 2) dacapo

DAPI : 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole

DARC : Duffy Ag receptor for chemokines

DARPA : defense advanced research projects agency

DARPP : dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein

DASS : defined Ag substrate spheres

DAT : 1) dopamine transporter ; 2) direct antiglobulin test

DAX : Dsh andaxin (domain)

DB : 1) diagonal band of Broca ; 2) database

DBC : deleted in breast cancer

DBCL : diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma

DBD : DNA-binding domain

DBE : direct blotting electrophoresis

DBL : 1) double (dbl) ; 2) dibble (dbl) ; 3) Duffy-binding-like (protein)

DBP : 1) Duffy binding protein ; 2) DNA binding protein

DBRP : destruction box recognition protein

DC : 1) direct current (dc) ; 2) dendritic cell ; 3) dyskeratosis congenita

DCBE : double-contrast barium enema

DCCK : dendritic cell-derived C-C chemokine

DcR : decoy receptor

DC : 1) decarboxylase ; 2) dendritic cell

DCC : 1) deleted in colon carcinoma ; 2) dicyclohexylcarbodiimide

DCCT : diabetes control and complications trial

DCF : 2',7'-dihydrochlorofluorescein (diacetate)

DCFH-DA : 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate

DCM : dilated cardiomyopathy

DCP : diphencyprone

DCSIGN : DC-specific ICAM-3-grabbing non-integrin

DCT : distal convoluted tubule

DD : 1) death domain ; 2) dideoxy (dd) ; 3) distilled and deionized (dd) ; 4) donor DNA

DDAVP : 1-deamino-8-D-AVP

DDBJ : DNA data bank of Japan

DDC : 1) diethyldithiocarbamic acid ; 2) 2',3'-dideoxycitidine ; 3) DOPA decarboxylase

Dde : Desulfovibrio desulfuricans

ddF : dideoxy fingerprinting

DDGE : denaturing detergent gradient gel electrophoresis

DDI : 2',3'-dideoxyinosine

DDP : diamminedichloroplatinum

DDR : 1) discoidin domain receptor ; 2) DNA damage response

DDRT-PCR : differential display transcriptase-PCR

DDT : dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane

DEAE : diethylaminoethyl

DEANO : 2,2-diethyl-1-nitroso-oxyhydrazine sodium salt (DEA/NO)

DEC : diethylcarbamazine

DED : death effector domain

DEET : N,N'-diethylmetatoluamide

DEFRA : department for environment, food and rural affairs

DEFSN : defensin (domain)

DEG : 1) degree  (deg) ; 2) degenerin

DEHD : Asp-Glu-His-Asp

DEJ : dermal-epidermal junction

DEM : discrete element method

DEN : diethyl nuitrosamine

DEP : 1) Dsh + Egl-10 + Pleckstrin (domain) ; 2) diethyl pyrocarbonate ; 3) diesel exhaust particle

DEPC : diethyl pyrocarbonate

DES : diethylstilbestrol

DETANONOATE : (Z)-1-[N-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl)amino]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (DETA NONOate)

DETC : dendritic epidermal T cells

DEV : 1) duck embryo vaccine ; 2) develop, development (dev)

DEVD : Asp-Glu-Val-Asp

DEXA : dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

df : degrees of freedom

DFF : DNA fragmentation factor

DFP : 1) diisopropyl fluorophosphate ; 2) DNA fingerprinting ; 3) 3-(2-propyloxy)-(4-methyl-sulphonylphenyl)-(5,5-dimethyl)-furanone

DFS : disease-free survival

DFSP : dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans

DFT : density functional theory

DFW : deafwaddler

Dg : diagnosis

DGAT : acylCoA:diacylglycerol transferase

DGDG : digalattosyldiacylglycerol

DGGE : denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

DGK : DAG kinase

DGLA : dihomo-GLA

DGR : 1) duodenogastric reflux ; 2) Drosophila melanogaster gustatory receptor

DH : 1) dehydrogenase ; 2) doubled haploids ; 3) Dbl-homology (domain) ; 4) DNase I hypersensitive (site)

DHA : 1) dihydroascorbate ; 2) dehydroepiandrosteron ; 3) docosahexanoic acid

DHAP : dihydroxyacetone phosphate

DHBAc : 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid

DHBAlc : 3,4-dihydroxybenzylalcohol

DHBAld : 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde

DHBAm : 3,4-dihydoxybenzylamine

DHEA : dehydroepiandrosterone

DHEA-S : DHEA sulphate

DHF : 1) dihydrofolate ; 2) dengue hemorrhagic fever

DHFR : dihydrofolate reductase

DHGLA : dihomo-GLA

Dhh : desert hedgehog

DHODH : dihydroorotate dehydrogenase

DHPLC : denaturing HPLC (DHPLC/dHPLC)

DHPR : dihydropyridine receptor

DHPS : dihydropteroate synthase

DHPy : 5,6-dihydropyrimidine

DHR : dihydrorhodamine

DHS : DNase I-hypersensitive site

DHT : 1) dihydrotachysterol ; 2) 5,6-dihydrothymine ; 3) dehydrotestosterone

DHU : 5,6-dihydrouracil

DI : 1) diabetes insipidus ; 2) defective interfering (RNA)

DIA : differentiation inhibiting activity

DIABLO : direct IAP-binding protein with low pI

diag : diagnosis

DIC : disseminate intravascular coagulation

DIDS : 4,4'-diisothiocyanato-stilbene-2,2'-disulfonate

DIF : differentiation-inducing factor

DIG : 1) digoxygenin ; 2) digoxin investigators group ; 3) detergent-insoluble glycolipid

DII : 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethyindolecarbocyanine perchlorate

dil : dilue (i.e. : diluite)

DIM : detergent-insoluble membrane

DIMBOA : 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one

DIOC6 : 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide (DiOC6)

DIP : distal interphalangeal (joint)

Dip-F : diisopropyl fluorophosphate

DIRVISH : direct visual hybridation

dis : disease

DISC : 1) death inducing signaling complex ; 2) discontinue (disc) ; 3) disabled infectious single cycle

disch : discharge

DISIN : (homologues of snake) disin(tegrin)

DIT : diiodotyrosine

DKK : dickkopf

DKO : double knock out

DLB : dementia with Lewy body

DLBCL : diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

DLCL : diffuse large-cell lymphoma

DLD : dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase

DLG : discs large (Dlg)

DLI : donor lymphocyte infusion

DLN : draining lymph node

DLPC : 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine

DLPFC : dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

DLT : maximal tolerated dose

DLV : delavirdine

DM : 1) double minute ; 2) doublesex DNA binding motif ; 3) distrophy myotonic ; 4) Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) ; 5) diabetes mellitus ; 6) dermatomyositis

DMA : deoxymugineic acid

DMAEMC : (poly-)dimethyl-ammonio ethyl methacrylate

DMARD : disease modifying anti-rheumatoid drug

DMC : DM chromosome

DMBA : 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene

DMD : 1) Duchenne muscular distrophy ; 2) differentially methylated domain

DMEC : dermal microvascular endothelial cells

DMEM : Dulbecco's modified Eagle's (or essential) medium

DMES : drug metabolizing enzyme system

DMF : N,N-dimethylformamide

DMFC : direct methanol fuel cell

DMN : dorsomedial nucleus

DMNV : dorsal motor nucleus of the vagal nerve

DMP : dentin matrix protein (Dmp)

DMPP : 1) dimethylphenylpiperazinium ; 2) dimethylallyl pyrophosphate

DMR : differentially methylated regions

DMRIE : 1,2-dimyristyloxypropyl-3-dimethyl-hydroxyethyl ammonium bromide

DMS : dimethylsulfate

DMSO : dimethyl sulfoxide

DMSPP : dimethylsulphoniopropionate

DMT : divalent metals transporter

DMTase : DNA MTase

DMTU : 1,3-dimethylthiourea

DN : 1) dominant negative (dn) ; 2) double-negative ; 3) number of nonsynonymous substitutions per site (dN)

DNA : deoxyribonucleic acid

DNA-PKcs : DNA-dependent protein kinase (catalytic subunit)

DNCB : dinitrochlorobenzene

DNFB : dinitrofluorobenzene

DNL : DNA liggase

DNMMA : NG-methyl-D-arginine (D-NMMA)

DNMT : DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt)

DNP : 2,4-dinitrophenyl

Dnp-F : FDNB

DNR : do not reanimate

DNS : 1) dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid ; 2) dansyl chloride

Dns-Cl : DNS

DNT : 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-naphtho-[1,2-d]thiazole

DOA : dead on arrival

DOB : date of birth

DOC : 1) sodium deoxycholate ; 2) desoxycorticosteron ; 3) deoxycholic acid

DOE : department of energy

DOGS : dioctadecylamidoglycylspermine

DOL : 1) dolichol (Dol) ; 2) dye-labelled oligonucleotide ligation

DOM : 1) dimethoxymethylamphetamine ; 2) dissolved organic matter

DOMA : 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid

DOPA : L-3,4-dihydroxyPhe

DOPAC : 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid

DOPE : dioleoyl phosphatidylethenolamine

DOPEG : 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylene

DOPGAL : 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycoaldehyde

DOP-PCR : degenerate oligonucleotide primed-PCR

DOPS : dihydroxyphenylserine

DOR : Drosophila melanogaster odour receptor

DOSPA : 2,3-dioleyloxy-N-[2(sperminecarboxamido)ethyl]-N-N-dimethyl-1-propanaminium trifluoroacetate

DOT : directly observed therapy

DOTMA : N[1-(2,3-dioleyloxy)propyl]-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride

DOTS : directly observed therapy, short course

DOXP : 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate

doz : dozen

DP : 1) death protein ; 2) degree of  polymerization ; 3) D2 prostaglandin (receptor) ; 4) dipeptidyldipeptidase ; 5) double-positive

DPase : DNA polymerase

DPBS : Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline

DPC : 1) deleted in pancreatic carcinoma (locus) ; 2) DNA-protein crosslinking ; 3) days post coitum (dpc)

DPCC : dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine

DPD : dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase

DPE : 1) differential protein expression ; 2) downstream promoter element

DPG : diphosphatidylglycerol

DPI : 1) dry powder inhaler ; 2) diphenylene iodonium

Dpm : 1) 2,6-diaminopimelic acid ; 2) disintegrations per minute (dpm)

DPN : diphosphopyridine nucleotide

DPP : 1) decapentaplegic (dpp) ; 2) dentin phosphoprotein

DPPH : 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrythydrazyl

Dpr : 2,3-diaminopropionic acid

DPRLA : dentatus-rubro-pallidus-luysian atrophy

DPYD : dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase

DR : 1) death-inducing receptor ; 2) doctor (Dr.) ; 3) detection rate ; 43) dietary restriction

DRA : destructive rheumatoid arthritis

DRAK : DAP kinase-related apoptosis-inducing serine/threonine protein kinase

DRASIC : dorsal-root ASIC

DRB : 5,6-dichloro-1-b-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole

DRG : 1) diagnosis related group ; 2) dorsal root ganglion

DRI : dietary reference intake

DRIP : 1) defective ribosomal product (DRiP) ; 2) vitamin D receptor-interacting hormone

DRM : detergent-resistant membrane

dRP : deoxyribose 5'-phosphate

DRSP : drug-resistant Streptoccoccus pneumoniae

DS : 1) Down's syndrome ; 2) depolarization shift ; 3) number of synonymous substitutions per site (dS) ; 4) distribution shift

dsb : DNA double-strand breaks

DSCP : double strand conformation polymorphism

dsDNA : double-stranded DNA

DSFV : disulfide stabilized fragment variable (dsFv)

Dsh : Dishevelled

DSHEA : dietary supplement health and education act

DSIP : d-sleep inducing peptide

DSL : Delta serrate ligand

DSM : diagnostic and statistical manual

DSP : dentin sialoprotein

DSPc : dual specificity phosphatase, catalytic (domain)

DSRM : double-stranded RNA-binding motif

dsRNA : double-stranded RNA

DSS : dengue shock syndrome

DST : 1) donor-specific transfusion ; 2) donor splenocyte

DT50H : T50H in homoduplex - T50H in heteroduplex

DTAA : di-L-Trp-aminal-acetaldheide

DTD : datur talis dosis (i.e. : give of such a dose) (d.t.d.)

DTH : delayed type hypersensitivity

DTL : descending thin limb

DTNB : 3,3'-dithiobis(6-nitrobenzoic acid) or 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) or Ellmann's reagent

DTR : 1) direct terminal repeat ; 2) deep tendon reflexes

DTs : delirium tremens

DTT  : dithiothreitol

DU : duodenal ulcer

DUB : de-ubiquitylating (enzyme)

DUF : domain of unknown function

DV : 1) dead volume ; 2) daily value

DVT : deep vein thrombosis

DW : dextrose and water (D/W)

Dx : diagnosis

DXPS : 1-deoxy-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase

DYNc : dynamin, catalytic (domain)

DZ : dizygotic (twins)

- E -

# A B CD E F G HIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

E : 1) eukaryotic (e) ; 2) endothelial (e) ; 3) embryonal day ; 4) early (protein) ; 5) reduction potential (E) ; 6) Glu ; 7) unknown amino acid a-C configuration (L or D) (x) ; 8) ectoplasmatic (face) ; 9) epithelial ; 10) entgegen (E) ; 11) elimination (reaction) ; 12) erythrocyte ; 13) electronic (e) ; 14) epinephrine ; 15) envelope (protein) ; 16) exa (i.e. 1018)

E1 : estrone

E2 : estradiol

E2F : E2 (adenoviral protein) factor

E3 : estriol

E6AP : E6 (adenoviral protein) -associated protein

EAA : excitatory amino acid

EAAT : EAA transporter

EAD : early afterdepolarization

EAE : experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

EAM : energy-absorbing material

EAMC : experimental autoimmune myocarditis

EAMG : experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis

EAR : 1) early allergic response ; 2) estimated average requirement

EAST : enteroaggregative E.coli heat-stable toxin

EAT : experimental autoimmune thyroiditis

EAU : experimental autoimmune uveitis

EB : 1) ethidium bromide ; 2) electroblotting ; 3) elementary body

EBDC : ethylenebisdithiocarbamate

EBF : early B cell factor

EBI : European Bioinformatics Institute

EBL : 1) European bat lyssavirus ; 2) estimated blood loss

EBM : evidence based medicine

EBNA : EBV nuclear Ag

EBV : Epstein-Barr virus

EC : 1) enzyme committee (or commission) (number) ; 2) endothelial cell ; 3) electrochromatography ; 4) embryonal carcinoma (cell) ; 5) enterochromaffin ; 6) epicatechin ; 7) European communities

EC50 : effective concentration median

ECA : 1) eosinophil chemoattractant ; 2) endobacteric common Ag

ECC : emergency cardiac care

ECD : extracellular domain

ECF : extracellular fluid

ECF-A : eosinophilic chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis

ECFP : enhanced cyan fluorescent protein

ECFV : extracellular fluid volume

ECG : 1) electrocardiogram ; 2) epicatechin gallate

ECGF : endothelial cell GF

Echoviridae : enteric cytopathogenic human orphan viruses

ECL : 1) enhanced chemiluminescence ; 2) enterochromaffin-like (cell)

ECM : extracellular matrix

ECMO : extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

ECMP : ECM protein

ECMV : encephalomyocarditis virus

Eco : Escherichia coli

ECP : eosinophil cationic protein

ECR : extended chromosome region

ECSIT : evolutionarily conserved intermediate in Toll pathways

ECT : electroconvulsive therapy

EDA : ectodysplasin A

ED50 : effective dose median

EDCF : endothelium-derived contracting factor

EDG : endothelial differentiation gene(-encoded)

EDHF : endotheluim-derived hyperpolarizing factor

EDL : extensor digitorum longus

EDN : eosinophil derived neurotoxin

EDOM : electronic dissolution of memory

EDRF : endothelium-derived relaxing factor

EDS : excessive daytime somnolence

EDTA : ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

EE : 1) electroelution ; 2) early endosome

EEA : early endosome antigen

EEC : European economic community

EEE : Eastern equine encephalitis (virus)

EEG : electroencephalogram

EENT : ears, eyes, nose and throat

EEO : electroendosmosis

EES : erythromycin ethylsuccinate

EEV : extracellular enveloped virion

EF : elongation factor

EFh : EF-hand (motif: from the parvalbumin E & F helices)

EFIC : episcopic fluorescence image capturing

EFS : event-free survial

EG : 1) exempli gratia (i.e. : example given) (e.g.) ; 2) embryonic germ (cell)

EGC : 1) epigallocatechin ; 2) early gastric cancer

EGCL : external granular cell layer

EGCG : epigallocatechin gallate

EGF : epidermal GF (domain)

EGF_CA : Ca2+-binding EGF-like (domain)

EGFP : enhanced GFP

EGL : external germinal layer

EGR : early growth response (Egr)

EGTA : 1) esophageal gastric tube airway ; 2) ethylene glycol-bis(b-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid

EG-VEGF : endocrine gland-derived VEGF

EH : Eps15 homology (domain)

EHAA : Eagle's Hanks' amino acids

EI : erythaema infectiosum

EIA : enzyme immunoassay

EIAV : equine infectious anemia virus

EIB : exercise-induced bronchoconstriction

EICAR : 5-ethynyl-1-b-D-ribofuranosylimidazole-4-carboxamide

EICE : ETS/IRF composite element

EID : 1) electroimmunodiffusion ; 2) egg-infective dose

EIR : entomological inoculation rate

EIRE : ETS/IRF response element

EIU : electronic interface unit

EJC : exon-junction complex

EKC : electrokinetic chromatography

EKG : electrokardiogram (German)

EL : electroluminescence

ELAM : endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule

ELC : 1) EBV-induced molecule-1 ligand chemokine ; 2) Ebl-1-ligand chemokine

EL-CSC : end-ligation coincident sequence cloning

ELF : 1) extremely low frequency

ELG : extracellular ligand-gated (Cl- channel)

ELK : Ets-like (TF)

ELISA : enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

ELISPOT : enzyme-linked immunospot

ELP : electromagnetic pulse

ELSI : ethical, legal and social issues

ELU : extra-label use

EM : 1) enriched medium ; 2) electron microscopy (E.M./EM) ; 3) extracellular medium ; 4) effective microorganism

EMA : 1) epithelial membrane Ag ; 2) endomysial antibodies ; 3) equilibrium modified atmosphere

EMAP : endothelial-monocyte-activating polypeptide

EMB : ethambutol

EMBL : European molecular biology laboratories

EMCV : encephalomyocarditis virus

EMD : electromechanical dissociation

emerg : emergency

EMF : 1) electromagnetic field ; 2) electromotivce force (emf)

EMG : electromyogram

EMMPRIN : extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer

EMP : Embden-Meyerhoff-Parnas (pathway)

EMS : 1) ethylmethansulphonate ; 2) eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome ; 3) emergency medical system

EMSA : electrophoretic mobility shift assay

EMT : emergency technician

EMTM : Evans’ modified Tobie’s medium

ENA : epithelial-cell-derived neutrophil-activating (protein)

ENaC : epithelial Na+ channel

ENAP : endothelial cell neutrophil-activating peptide

END : endothelin (domain)

Endo H : endoglycosidase H

ENDOR : electron nuclear double resonance

ENS : enteric nervous system

ENSO : El Nino/Southern oscillation

ENT : 1)  enantio- (ent-) ; 2) ears, nose and throat

ENTH : epsin N-terminal homology (domain)

ENU : ethylnitrosourea

Eo : eosinophilic

EOA : esophageal obturator airway

EOF : electroosmotic flow

EOM : extra-ocular muscle

EP : 1) endorphin ; 2) E2 prostaglandin receptor

EPA : 1) eicosapentaenoic acid ; 2) environmental protection agency ; 3) esopago-pharyngeal airway

EPC : endothelial progenitor cell

EpCAM : epithelial cell adhesion molecule

EPCR : endothelial-cell protein-C receptor

EPDRF : epithelium-derived relaxing factor (EpDRF)

EPEC : enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

Eph : ephrin

EPI : epinephrine

epith : epithelial

EPN : eicosapentanoic acid

EPO : 1) erytropoietin (Epo) ; 2) European patent office ; 3) eosinophil peroxidase

EPP : erythropoietic protoporphyria

EPR : 1) electron paramagnetic resonance ; 2) early phase reaction ; 3) enhanced permeability and retention

EPS : EGFR pathway substrate

EPSP : 1) 5 enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate ; 2) excitatory post-synaptic potential

EPSPS : EPSP synthase

eq(uiv.) : equivalent (Eq/eq/equiv.)

ER : 1) endoplasmic reticulum ; 2) estrogen receptor ; 3) emergency room (ER / E.R.) ; 4) early reaction

ERAD : endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation

Erb : er(ythro)b(lastosis)

ERC : extrachromosomal rDNA circle

ERCC : excision-repair cross-complementing

ERCP : endoscopic retrograde colangiopancreatography

ERD : estrogen receptor (ligand-binding) domain

ERDM : erythromycin-N-demethylase

ERE : estrogen RE

ERG : electroretinogram

ERGIC : ER-Golgi intermediate compartment

ERK : extracellular regulated (or extracellular signal-related) kinase

ERM : 1) Ets-related molecule ; 2) esrin, radixin and moesin (family)

EROD : 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase

ERP : effective refractory period

ERV : expiratory reserve volume

ES : 1) embryonic stem (cell) ; 2) evolutionarily stable; 3) expression site

ESAT : early secreted antigenic target

ESB : electronic stimulation of the brain

ESCC : esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

ESCS : enhanced S-cone syndrome

ESE : exonic splicing enhancer

ESI : electrospray ionization

ESI-FTMS : ESI Fourier-transform mass spectroscopy

ESI-MS : ESI mass spectroscopy

ESkine : embryonic stem cell chemokine

esp : 1) enhanced susceptibility to pathogen ; 2) especially

ESR : 1) erythrosedimentation rate ; 2) electron spin resonance

ESRD : end-stage renal disease

ESS : 1) Epworth sleepiness scale 2) exonic splicing silencer

EST : 1) expressed sequence tag ; 2) estimate, estimation (est)

ET : 1) ehtyl (Et-) ; 2) embryo transfer ; 3) energy transfer ; 4) and (et) ; 5) endothelin ; 6) effector/target ratio (E/T ; E:T)

et al. : et alii (i.e. : and others)

EtBr : ethidium bromide

ETC : 1) extraterrestrial civilization ; 2)  et cetera (i.e. : and so on, and so forth, and others) (etc.) ; 3) esophago-tracheal combitube

ETCO2 : end-tidal CO2

ETFP : electron transfer flavoprotein

ETLP : electron transport level phosphorylation

EtOH : ethanol

ETO : 1) etoposide ; 2) eight-twenty-one

ETP : electron transport phosphorylation

ETS : 1) e(ry)t(hroblastosi)s (ETS/ets) ; 2) environmental tobacco smoke ; 3) electron transport system

ETT : exercise treadmill time

ETU : ethylenethiourea

EU : european union

EUA : examination under anaesthesia

EV : epidermodysplasia verruciformis

EVG : expression-verified gene

EVH : Enabled / Vasp homology

exa : 1018

EXAFS : extended X-ray absorption fine structure

EXP : 1) experiment(al) (Exp./ exp) ; 2) exponential (exp.)

EYFP : enhanced yellow fluorescent protein

EYL : Earle’s yeast lactalbumin (balanced salt solution)

- F -

# A B CDE F G HIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

F : 1) Faraday constant (F) ; 2) fructose ; 3) formyl (f) ; 4) Phe ; 5) fertility (factor) ; 6) femto (f) ; 7) filamentous ; 8) coefficient of inbreeding ; 9) fertility (factor) ; 10) filial (generation) ; 11) fragment (f) ; 12) mitochondrial (H+ ATPase) ; 13) Fahrenheit (degree) (°F) ; 14) variance ratio (F) ; 15) farad (unit) ; 16) factor (of coagulation) ; 17) female ; 18) fungal (f) ; 19) dihedral angle of rotation around the N-aC bond in a peptide unit (f) ; 20) family ; 21) (nosographic or diagnostic) sensitivity (f) ; 22) fusion (protein) ; 23) flux (f) ; 24 aceton (f)

FA : Fanconi anemia

FA58C : coagulation factor 5/8 C-terminal (domain)

FAAH : fatty acid aminohydrolase

FAB : 1) fragment Ag-binding (Fab) ; 2) fast atomic bombardment ; 3) French-American-British (classification)

FABP : fatty acid binding protein

FACS : fluorescence-activated cell (chromosome) sorter (FACS®)

FAD : 1) flavin-adenine dinucleotide ; 2) familial AD

FADD : Fas-associated death domain

FAE : follicle-associated epithelium

FAF : 1) fatty acid free ; 2) Fas associated factor

FAH : fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase

FAICAR : N-formylaminoimidazhole 4-carboxyamide ribonucleotide

FAK : focal adhesion kinase

FALS : 1) forward angle light scatter ; 2) familial ALS

FAM : 6-carboxyfluorescein

FAME : fatty acid modifying enzyme

FAN : factor associated with neutral sphingomyelinase (activation)

FANA : fluorescent anti-nuclear antibody

FANC : Fanconi anaemia complementation group

FANCY : functional analysis by co-responses in yeast

FANFT : (N-[4,5-nitro-2-furyl]-2-thiazole) formamide

FAP : 1) Fas-associated phosphatase ; 2) familial adenomatous polyposis ; 3) familial amyloid polyneuropathy; 4) first aid point

Fapy : 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-N-methylformamidopyrimidine

FAQ : frequently asked question

FARCE : freezing at the reactive centres of enzyme

FAS : 1) FS7 (foreskin cell strain) associated sAg (Fas) ; 2) fatty-acid synthase

FASL : Fas ligand (FASL/FasL)

FAT : 1) fluorescent Ab test ; 2) factor acetyltransferase ; 3) focal-adhesion-targeting (sequence)

FATP : fatty acid transporter

FAU : 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-1-b-D-arabinofuranosyl-uracil

FAVN : fluorescent Ab virus neutralisation

FB : foreign body

FBBG : filamentous brush border glycocalyx

FBJVMSV : Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins murine sarcoma virus

FBP : 1) folate-binding protein ; 2) fructose-1,6-bisphosphate

FBS : 1) foetal bovine serum ; 2) fasting blood sugar

Fc : fragment crystallizable

FCCP : trifluorocarbonylcyanide phenylhydrazone

FCHL : familial combined hyperlipidemia

FCK : fetal calf kidney (cell)

FCM : flow cytofluorometry

FCR : 1) fractional catabolic rate ; 2) Fc receptor

FCS : 1) fluorescence correlation spectroscopy ; 2) foetal calf serum

FCV : famciclovir

FD : 1) ferredoxin (Fd) ; 2) fatal dose

FDA : food and drug administration

FDAMA : FDA modernization act

FDAT : fluorescence-based DNA analysis technology

FDC : follicular dendritic cell

FDCA : food, drug and cosmetics act

FDCM : familial DCM

FDCSP : FDC secreted protein (FDC-SP)

FDG : 18F-2-deoxyglucose

FD-MS : field desorption mass spectroscopy

FDNB : 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene

FDR : functional divergence ratio

FdUMP : 5-fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate

FdUrd : 5-fluorodeoxyuridine

FEA : finite element analysis

FECH : ferrochelatase

FEF : forced expiratory flow

FEL : free electron laser

FeLV : feline leukemia virus

femto : 10-15

FEN : flap-structure endonuclease

FEV : forced expiration volume

FEV1 : FEV during the first second

FEX : fexofenadine

FF : 1) father's father ; 2) following (ff)

FFA : free fatty acid

FFE : free flow electrophoresis

FFF . field flow (or force) fractionation

FFI : fatal familial insomnia

FFID : fission-fragment-induced desorption

FFQ : food frequency questionnaire

FG : fibrinogen

FGAM : formylglycinamidin ribonucleotide

FGAR : formylglycinamide ribonucleotide

FGF : fibroblast growth factor

FH : 1) familial hypercholesterolaemia ; 2) Forkhead (domain) ; 3) family history

FHA : 1) Forkhead associated (domain) ; 2) filamentous haemagglutinin

FHF : familial hibernian fever

FHL : familial haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

FI : 1) formalin-inactivated ; 2) fermi (Fi) (= fm)

FIC : 1) fibroblast-induced cytokine ; 2) fractional inhibitory concentration

FIF : forced inspiratory flow

FIGE : field inversion gel electrophoresis

FI-MS : field ionization mass spectroscopy

FIP : facultative intracellular parasite

FISH : fluorescence ISH

FITC : fluorescein isothiocyanate

FITS : flexible image transport system

FIV : feline immunodeficiency virus

FIVET . fertilization in vitro and embryo transfer

FIZZ : found in inflammatory zone

FJB : Fluoro-Jade B

FKBP : FK506 BP

FKHR : Forkhead in rhabdomyosarcoma

FL : 1) fetal liver (cell) (FL) ; 2) fluid (fl) ; 3) full length

FLAG : fluorescein angiography

FLAME : FADD-like anti-apoptotic molecule

FLAP : 5-lipoxygenase activating protein

FLASH : FLICE-associated huge protein

FLC : fetal liver chimera

Flg : Fms-like gene

FLICE. : FADD-like ICE

FLIP : FLICE inhibitory protein

FLK : fetal lamb kidney (cells)

FLpter : fraction of lenght form p ter

FLS : 1) fibroblast-like synoviocyte ; 2) fibrous long-spaced (collagen)

FM : 1) father's mother ; 2) 2'-O-methylpseudouridine (fm) ; 3) frequency-modulated

FMD : foot and mouth disease

FMDII : methylbenzamido-1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindo-dicarbocyanine (FM-DiI)

FMDV : FMD virus

FMF : familial Mediterranean fever

FMK : O-methyl-fluoromethylketone (fmk)

FML : fluorometholone

FMLP (or fMLP) : formylMet-Leu-Phe

FMN : flavin mononucleotide

FMOC : 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (F-moc)

FMP : factor motility protein

FMR : Fiend/Moloney/Rauscher

FMRFamide : H-Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2

fMRI : functional MRI

FMT : fluorescence-mediated tomography

FMTC : familial medullary thyroid carcinoma

FN : fibronectin (domain) (Fn)

FNA : funaltrexamine

FNR : 1) fumarate nitrate reduction (Fnr) ; 2) ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase

FOBT : fecal occult blood test

FOG : friend of GATA

FOLN : follistatin-NTD-like

FOMT : flavanone 7-O-methyltransferase

For : formyl

Fos : f(eline) os(teosarcoma)

FP : 1) fluorescence polarization ; 2) freezing point (f.p.) ; 3) F2a prostaglandin (receptor) ; 4) forward primer (fp)

FPA : 1) fluorescence polarisation assay ; 2) Ferguson plot analysis

FPB : flexor pollicis brevis (muscle)

FPERT : formamide PERT

FPLC : fast protein liquid chromatography

FPP : 1) farnesyl pyrophosphate ; 2) fresh plama pool

FPR : 1) N-formyl peptide receptor ; 2) false positive ratio

FPRL : N-formyl peptide receptor-like

FR : framework region

frac : fracture

frag : fragment

FRAP : 1) FKBP-rapamycin-associated protein ; 2) fluorescence recovery after photobleaching

FRAXA : fragile X syndrome

FRB : FRAP rapamycin binding domain

FRC : functional residual capacity

freq : freequency, frequent

FRET : fluorescence resonance energy transfer

FRI : 1) frizzled (domain) ; 2) fluorescence reflectance imaging

FrMLV : Friend murine leukemia virus

FRP : frizzled receptor-like protein

FRR : familial relative risk

FRS : FGF receptor stimulated

Fru : fructose

FS : fractional shortening

FSA : food standard agency

FSC : forward (light) scatter (analysis)

FSE : field stop electrophoresis

FSF : fibrin stabilizing factor

FSH : follicle stimulating hormone

FSHD : fascio-scapolo-homeral distrophy

FSV : 1) Fujinami sarcoma virus ; 2) feline syncytial virus

FT : 1) freezing and thawing (F/T) ; 2) foot (unit) (ft(.))

FT4 : free T4

FTIC MS : Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry

FT-MS : Fourier transform mass spectroscopy

FTOC : fetal thymic organ culture

FTV : fortovase

FU : 1) fused (Fu) ; 2) furin-like repeats

Fuc : fucose

FUCT : fucosyltransferase (FucT)

FUO : fever of undetermined origin

FUra : 5-fluorouracil

Fv : fragment variable

FVC : forced vital capacity

FW: formula weight

FX : 1) fracture (Fx) ; 2) fornix

FXR : farnesol X receptor

FYB : FYN binding protein

FYVE : Fab-1, YGL023 (YOTB), Vps27 (Vac1) and EEA1 (domain)

Fz : frizzled

- G -

# A B CDEF G HIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

G : 1) genomic (g); 2) Gibbs free energy (G) ; 3) guanine ; 4) glucose ; 5) glyceraldehyde ; 6) glutathione ; 7) Gly ; 8) gap (phase) ; 9) giga ; 10) granulocyte ; 11) globular ; 12) Giemsa (staining) ; 13) relative centrifugal force (g) ; 14) gram (g) ; 15) glycoprotein (G/g)

GA : 1) glatiramer acetate ; 2) gibberellin

GAB : Grb2-associated binder (Gab)

GABA : g-aminobutyric acid

GABARAP : GABAA receptor associated protein

GAC : granular activated carbon (filter)

GAD : glutamic acid decarboxylase

GADD : growth arrest and DNA damage

GAF : IFNg-activating factor

GAFeSV : Gardner-Arnstein feline sarcoma virus

GAFS : gated autofluorescence/forward scatter

GAG : glycosaminoglycan

GAL : 1) galactose (Gal) : 2) gallon (gal)

GALC : galactocerebrosidase-a

GALV : gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV / GaLV)

GalN : galactosamine

GalNAc : N-acetylgalactosamine

gal q : b-D-galactosylqueuosine

GALT : gut-associated lymphoid tissue

GAM : goat anti-mouse (Ig)

GAP : 1) GTPase activating protein ; 2) glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate

GAPDH :  glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase

GAR : glycinamide ribonucleotide

GARGG : goat anti-rabbit g-globulin

GARP : glutamic acid-rich protein

GAS : 1) IFNg-activating sequence ; 2) growth arrest specific (protein 2 domain) ; 3) general adaptation syndrome ; 4) group A Streptococcus

GAT : gene augmentation therapy

GATE : Golgi-associated ATPase enhancer

GATT : gene amplification with transcription/translation

GAVI : global alliance for vaccines and immunizations

GAWTS : genomic amplificatioin with transcript sequencing

GB : galbladder

GBA : genetic bit analysis

GBH : g-hydroxybutyrate

GBL : Glc-binding lectine

GBM : glomerular basement membrane

GBS : group B Streptococcus

GC : 1) germinal center ; 2) gas chromatography ; 3) gallocatechin ; 4) guanylate cyclase ; 5) glucocorticoid ; 6) (cerebellar) granule cell

GCA : giant cell arteritis

GCAP : guanylate cyclase-activating protein

GCDC : germinal center dendritic cell

GCF : gingival crevicular fluid

GCK : germinal center kinase

GCN : general control of amino acid biosynthesis

GCP : 1) good clinical practice ; 2) granulocyte chemotactic protein

GCS : Glasgow coma scale

GCV : gancyclovir

GD : Graves' disease

GDEPT : gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy

GDF : 1) growth/differentiation factor ; 2) GDI-displacement factor

GDI : GDP-dissociation inhibitor

GDNF : glial-derived neurotrophic factor

GDP : 1) guanosine 5'-diphosphate ; 2) gross domestic product

gdPCR : gene dosage PCR

GDS : GDP-dissociation (displacement) stimulator

GE : 1) genetically engineered ; 2) gel electroporesis ; 3) genome equivalent ; 4) general electric (company)

GEC : glomerular epithelial cell

GED : GTPase effector domain

GEF : GDP/GTP exchange factor

GEFS : generazlied epilepsy with febrile seizures

GEL : gelsolin homology domain

GEM : glycolipid-enriched microdomain

GERD : gastroesophageal reflux disease

GERL : Golgi-endoplasmic reticulum-lysosome

GF : 1) germ-free ; 2) growth factor

GFAP : glial fibrillary acidic protein

GFAT : Gln:Fru-6-P amidotransferase

GFP : green-fluorescent protein

GFR : glomerular filtration rate

GGL : G-protein g subunit-like motif

GG-NER : global-genome NER

g-GT : g-glutamyl transferase (or transpeptidase)

GH : 1) growth hormone ; 2) general hospital

GHA : glycoprotein hormone a chain homologues

GHB : glycoprotein hormone b chain homologues

GHRH : GH releasing hormone

GHRP : GH-releasing peptide

GHS : GH secretagogue

GI : gastrointestinal

GIF : GH-release inhibiting factor

giga : 109

GIGO : garbage in, garbage out

GILT : IFNg-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase

GIP : gastric inhibitory peptide

GIPL : glycoinositolphospholipid

GISA : glycopeptide-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus

GISH : genomic ISH

GIST : gastrointestinal stromal tumour

GIT : 1) gastro-intestinal tract ; 2) growth inhibition test ; 3) GRK interactor

GITR : glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor family-related gene

GJIC : gap junctional intracellular communication

GK : glucokinase

GKLF : gut-enriched Kruppel-like factor

GL : germline

GLA : 1) 4- or g-carboxyGlu (-containing domain) (Gla) ; 2) g-linolenic acid

GLC : 1) gas-liquid chromatography ; 2) glucose (Glc)

GlcA : gluconic acid

GlcN : glucosamine

GlcNAc : N-acetylglucosamine

GlcUA . glucuronic acid

GLD : globoid cell leukodystrophy

GLECT : galectin (domain)

GLH : growth and lactogenic hormones

GLI : glioma

Gln : glutamine

GLP : 1) 5-oxoPro or piroGlu (Glp) ; 2)  good laboratory practice ; 3) glucagon-like peptide

Glu : 1) glutamic acid ; 2) glucose (GLU)

GLUD : Glu dehydrogenase

GLUT : Glc transporter

Glx : Glu or Gln or Gla or Glp

Gly : glycine

GM : 1) genetically modified ; 2) gram (gm) ; 3) 2'-O-methylguanosine ; 4) gentamycin ; 5) gene modified

GMA : glycol methacrylate

GMC : ganglion mother cell

GM-CSF : granulocyte and monocyte CSF

GMF : genetically modified food

GMO : genetically modified organism

GMP : 1) guanosine 5'-monophosphate ; 2) granule membrane protein ; 2) good manufacturing practice ; 4) granulocyte-monocyte progenitor

GMS : genomic mismatch scanning

GN : glomerulonephritis

GNAT : Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase

GNBP : guanine nucleotide-binding protein

GnRF : gonadotropin releasing factor

GnRH : gonadotropin releasing hormone

GNRP : G nucleotide releasing protein

GNTI : 5'-guanidino naltrindole

GO : 1) Graves' ophtalmopathy ; 2) gene ontology

GOD : generator of diversity

GOF : gain-of-function

GOLD : global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease

GORD : gastro oesophageal reflux disease

GOT : Glu-OAA trassaminase

GP : 1) glycoprotein (GP / gp) ; 2) glycophorin ; 3) general practitioner

GPAT : genetic prodrug activation therapy

GPC : glycoprotein complex

GPCOV : guinea pig type C oncovirus

GPCR : G-protein coupled receptor

GPI : glycosyl-PI (anchor or linkage)

GPP : geranyl pyrophosphate

GPR : G-protein-coupled receptor

GPS : GPCR proteolytic site (domain)

GPT : Glu-Pyr transaminase

GPX : glutathione peroxidase

GR : glucocorticoid receptor

GRAN : granulin

Granzyme : gran(ule en)zyme

GRAS : generally recognized as safe

Grb : GF receptor-bound

GRE : glucocorticoid RE

GRF : 1) GH-releasing factor ; 2) guanine nucleotide releasing factor

GRH : GH-releasing hormone

GRIP : 1) glucocorticoid receptor interacting protein ; 2) Glu receptor interacting protein

GRK : GPC R kinase

gRNA : guide RNA

GRO : growth-related oncogene

GRP : gastrin reasing peptide

GRPP : glucagon gene-related polypeptide

GRR : IFN-g response region

Grx : glutaredoxin

GS : 1) glutamine synthetase ; 2) genomic selection

GSC : germline stem cell

GSD : glycogen storage disease

GSK : glycogen synthase kinase

GSH : reduced (-SH) glutathione

GSL : glycosphingolipid

GSNO : S-nitrosoglutathione

GSS : 1) Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (syndrome) ; 2) genome survey sequence

GSSG : oxidized (-S-S-) glutathione

GST : glutathione S-transferase

GT : 1) galactosyl transferase ; 2) gutta (i.e. : drop) (gt)

GTA : 1) general transcription apparatus ; 2) gene transfer agent

GTAC : gene therapy advisory committee

GTD : Graves' thyroid disease

GTE : glucose-Tris-EDTA (buffer)

GTEC : green tea epicatechin compounds

GTL : G-banded chromosomes using trypsin and Leishman's stain

GTP : 1) guanosine triphosphate ; 2) green tea polyphenol

gtt : guttae (i.e. : drops)

GU : genitourinary

GUD : genital ulcer disease

GuKc : guanilate kinase homologues

GUS : b-glucuronidase

GUT : grand unified theories

GVHD : graft-versus-host disease

GVHR : graft-versus-host reaction

GVL : graft-versus-leukaemia

GVM : 1) graft-versus-malignancy ; 2) graft-versus-myeloma

GVT : graft-versus-tumour

G/W : glucose and water

Gy : gray (unit)

Gyr : DNA gyrase

- H -

# A B CDEFG H IJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

H : 1) human (H/h) ; 2) hormone; 3) histone ; 4) hour (H/h) ; 5) Planck's constant (h) ; 6) His ; 7) helper (h) ; 8) hybrid ds ; 9) entalphy (H) ; 10) heavy ; 11) horizontal limb of ; 12) dose equivalent (H) ; 13) follows G in the alphabet (i.e. : A or C or T in base codes) ; 14) haemagglutinin serotype

HA : 1) haemagglutinin ; 2) heteroduplex analysis ; 3) hyaluronic acid

HAART : highly active antiretroviral therapy

HAC : human artificial chromosome

HACEK : Haemophilus spp., Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella spp., Kingella kingae

HAD : 1) HIV-1-associated dementia ; 2) haemadsorption

Hae : Haemophilus aegyptius

HALZ : homeobox associated LZ

HAM : HTLV-1-associated myelopathy

HAMA : human anti-murine antibody

HAMP : His kinases, adenylyl cyclases, methyl binding proteins, phosphatases (domain)

HaMSV : Harvey murine sarcoma virus

HANE : hereditary angioneurotic edema

HAP : hydroxyapatite

HAPPY : haploid amounts of DNA by the polymerase chain reaction

HAS : hyaluronic acid synthase

HAT : 1) histone acetyltransferase ; 2) hypoxanthine, aminopterin, thymidine (medium)

HAU : hemagglutinating unit

HAV : hepatitis A virus

HAVR : HAV receptor

Hb : hemoglobin

HBD : 1) hormone binding domain ; 2) has been drinking

HBEC : human bronchial epithelial cell

HBI : hsp-binding immunophilin

HBIg : hepatitis B Ig

HBMI : hybrid brain-machine interface

HBO : hyperbaric oxygen

HBP : high blood pressure

HBS : HEPES-buffered saline

HBSS : Hanks’ balanced salt solution

HBV : hepatitis B virus

HC : 1) hairy cell ; 2) hippocampus ; 3) hepatocellular carcinoma ; 4) hemorrhagic colitis

HCA : hydrophobic cluster analysis

HCC : 1) haemofiltrate CC chemokine ; 2) hepatocellular carcinoma

HCF : human chromosome fragment (hCF)

hCG : human chorionic gonadotropin

HCI : haem (heme)-controlled inhibitor

HCM : hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

HCMV : human cytomegalovirus

HCN : hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated K+ channel

HCP : hematopoietic cell phosphatase

HCR : 1) hypoxic cell cytotoxicity ratio ; 2) haem-controlled repressor (heme-regulated eIF-2a kinase)

hCS : human chorionic somatomammotropin

HCT : 1) hematopoietic cell transplantation ; 2) hematocrit

HCV : 1) hepatitis C virus ; 2) human calicivirus

HCW : Hb concentration width

Hcy : homocysteine

HD : 1) histone deacetylase ; 2) Huntington's disease ; 3) hora decubitus (i.e. : at hour of lying down at bedtime) (h.d.) ; 4) heterodimer ; 5) Hodgkin's disease

HDAC : histone deacetylase

HDC : histidine decarboxylase

HDEL : His-Asp-Glu-Leu

HDF : human diploid fibroblast

HDGF : hypothalamus-derived GF

HDL : 1) high-density lipoprotein ; 2) Huntington's disease-like

HDL-C : HDL-cholesterol

HDM : house dust mite

HDMEC : human dermal microvascular endothelial cell

HDN : hemolytic disease of the newborn

HDR : high-dose/refuge

HDRP : HD-related protein

HDV : hepatitis delta virus

HE : 1) hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) ; 2) effective dose equivalent (HE) ; 3) haemagglutinin esterase ; 4) hydroxyethidine

HEC : 1) human engineered chromosome ; 2) hydroxyethyl cellulose

HECT : homologous to the E6-AP carboxyl terminus (domain)

HEDID : hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (HED-ID)

HEK : human embryonic kidney (cell)

HEL : hen egg lysozyme

HeLa : Henrietta Lacks (' cell line)

HEMA : 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate

Hepadnavirus : hepatitis DNA virus

HEPE :  hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid

HEPES : N(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-N'-(2-ethanesulphonic acid) (buffer)

HER : heregulin

HERV : human endogenous retrovirus

HES : 1) hypereosinophilic syndrome ; 2) hydroxyethyl starch ; 3) hairy enhancer of split (homolog)

HET : heterozygosity

HETE : hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid

HETP : height equivalent to a theoretical plate

HEU : highly enriched uranium

HEV : 1) high endothelial venule ; 2) hepatitis E virus

HF : 1) high frequency (hf) ; 2) hemorrhagic fever ; 3) hypoxic fraction ; 4) human foreskin fibroblast

HFEA : human fertilization and embriology authority

Hfr : high frequency of recombination

hfs : hyperfine structure

HFT . high frequency of transduction

HFV : 1) hepatitis F virus ; 2) human foamy virus

HGB : hemoglobin (concentration)

HGDP : human genome diversity project

HGE : human granulocytic ehrlichiosis

HGF : 1) hepatocyte GF ; 2) hereditary gingival fibromatosis

hGH : human GH

HGM: human gene mapping

HGP : human genome project

HGPRT : hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase

HGS : Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome

HGV : hepatitis G virus

Hha : Haemophilus haemolyticus

HH : hedgehog (Hh)

HhH : helix-hairpin-helix (motif)

HHPA : 12-O-hexadecanoyl-16-hydroxyphorbol-13-acetate

HHV : human herpesvirus

HI : 1) haemagglutination inhibition ; 2) hippocampus ; 3) hypoxic-ischemic

Hib : Haemophilus influenzae type b

HIC : 1) hypermethylated in cancer ; 2) hydrophobic interaction chromatography

HIF : hypoxia-inducible TF

HIFBS : heat-inactivated FBS

HIID : heavy-ion-induced desorption

Hil : highly inappropriate legislation

HIM : 1) hemopoietic inducing microenvironment ; 2) X-linked hyper IgM (syndrome)

Hind : Haemophilus influenzae Rd

Hint : h(edgehog) int(ein) domain

HIOMT : hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase

HIPAA : health insurance portability and countability act

HIS : 1) heat-inactivated (human) serum; 2) histidine (His)

HISF : heat-inactivated seminal fluid (HI-SF)

HisKc : His kinase (domain)

HIV : human immunodeficiency virus

HIVE : HIV-1 encephalitis

HK : histone kinase

HKLM : heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes

Hkp : house-keeping protein

HL : 1) hepatic lipase ; 2) haemolysin

HLA : human leukocyte Ag

HLE : human leukocyte elastase

HLH : helix-loop-helix (motif)

HLHS : hypoplastic left heart syndrome

HLPS : human lymphoproliferative syndrome

HLS : Huntingdon life sciences (Co.)

HLV : hop latent viroid

HMC : human mast cell (line)

HMDM : human monocyte-derived macrophage

HMEC : human microvascular endothelial cell

HMG : 1) high mobility group ; 2) b-hydroxy-b-methyl-glutaryl

HMGR : HMG-CoA reductase

HML : human mucosal lymphocyte Ag

HMM : 1) hexamethylmelamine ; 2) heavy meromyosin ; 3) hidden Markov model

HMPV : human meta-pneumovirus (hMPV)

HMrBN : high Mr basic nuclear protein

HMSC : human mesenchymal stem cell

HMS-PCI : high-throughput mass spectrometric protein complex identification

HMTase : histone MTase

HMWC : high molecular weight component

HMWK : high molecular weight kininogen

HN : 1) heterogeneous nuclear ; 2) haemagglutinin and neuraminidase

HNF : hepatocyte nuclear factor

HNL : human neutrophil lipocalin

HNPCC : hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer

HNPP : hereditary neuropathy with pressure paralysis

HO : 1) heme oxygenase ; 2) homothallic switching

HODE : hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid

HOMO : 1) highest occupied molecular orbital ; 2) compound with one more methylene group (homo-)

HormR : hormone receptor (domain)

HOS : high oxygen submersion

hosp : hospital

HP : 1) Helicobacter pylori ; 2) haptoglobin ; 3) heterochromatin protein ; 4) hypersensitivity pneumonia

HPA : 1) Haemophilus parainfluenzae (Hpa) ; 2) Helix pomatia agglutinin ; 3) hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (axis)

HPB : health protection branch

HPC : hemopoietic progenitor cell

HPCE : high performance capillary electrophoresis

HPE : hybrid polymer electrolyte

HPETE : hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid

HPF : high-power field (hpf / HPF)

HPFH : hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin

HPI : history of present illness

HPK : hematopoietic progenitor kinase

hPL : human placental lactogen (hormone)

HPLC : high-pressure (or high-performance) liquid chromatography

HPLC-EC : HPLC with electrochemical detection

HPLC-UV : HPLC with UV detection

HPMA : N-2-hydroxypropyl methacrylamide

HPMPC : S-1-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)citosine

HPPD : hallucinogen persisting perception disorder

HPRT : hypoxanthine (-guanine) phosphoribosyl transferase

HPS : human placental supernatant

HPTP : high cell density-enhanced PTP

HPV : human papillomavirus

HR : 1) homologous recombination ; 2) hypersensitive response ; 3) Holmes ribgrass (TMV strain) ; 4) hour (hr) ; 5) heart rate ; 6) homology region

HRDC : helicase and RNAse D C-terminal (domain)

HRE : 1) hypoxia responsive element ; 2) hormone RE

HrK : harakiri

HRI : hemin-regulated inhibitor

HRIG : human rabies Ig

HRMS : high resolution microwave search

HRP : horseradish peroxidase

HRPO : horseradish peroxidase

HRR : haplotype relative risk

HRS : Hodgkin's lymphoma Reed-Sternberg cell

HRT : hormone replacement therapy

HRV : human rhinovirus

HS : 1) hora somni (i.e. : hour of sleep) (h.s.) ; 2) heparan sulphate ; 3) (DNase I) hypersensitive (site) ; 4) human serum

HSA : 1) heat-stable Ag ; 2) human serum albumin

HSC : haematopoietic stem cell

HSCR : Hirschprung (disease)

HSCT : HSC transplantation

HSD : hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase

HSE : 1) heat-shock consensus element ; 2) homoserine (Hse)

HSEC : hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cell

HSF : heat shock factor

HOT : hydroxylamine and Os tetroxide

HSK : herpetic stromal keratitis

HSL : 1) hormone-sensitive lipase ; 2) Hse lactone (Hsl)

HSOC : half saturating outside concentration

HSP : heat shock protein

HSPG : heparan sulphate proteoglycan

HSR . homogeneously stained regions

HSRV : human spumavirus

HSS : Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome

HSV : herpes simplex virus

HT : height (ht)

HTB : 2-hydroxy-4-trifluoromethylbenzoic acid

HTF : HpaII tiny fragment

HTH : helix-turn-helix (motif)

HTL : helper T lymphocyte

HTLV : human T(-cel)l lymphotrophic virus

HTML : hypertext markup language

HTMT : 6-[2-(4-imidazolyl)ethylamino]-N-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)hepatanecarboxamide

HTP : high throughput

HTS : HTP screening

HTTP : hypertext transmission protocol (http)

HU : hydroxyurea

HUGO : human genome organization

HUPO : human proteome organization

HUS : hemolytic uremic syndrome

HUTEC : human tonsil high endothelial cell

HUVEC : human umbilical vein endothelial cells

HVA : 1) high-voltage activated ; 2) homovanillic acid

HVD : hypertensive vascular disease

HVEM : Herpesvirus entry mediator

HVR : hypervariable region

HVS : herpesvirus saimiri

HWE : Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

HX : 1) hypoxanthine ; 2) history (Hx) ; 3) hemopexin-like (repeats)

HYAL : hyaluronidase (Hyal)

Hyl : 5-hydroxylysine

Hyp : hydroxyproline

HZFeSV : Hardy-Zuckerman feline sarcoma virus

- I -

# A B CDEFGH I JKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

I : 1) inducible (i) ; 2) inhibitor (I, i) ; 3) inorganic (i) ; 4) Ile ; 5) current (I) ; 6) isotropic ; 7) inactive (i) ; 8) inosine (I/i)

i6a : N6-isopentenyladenosine

IA : 1) incurred accidentally ; 2) islet Ag

IAA : 1) indole-3-acetic acid ; 2) inhibitory amino acid

IAB : intact active bone

IAC : independent adjudication committee

IAD : 1) IRF association domain ; 2) IER association domain

IAEDANS : 5-((((2-iodoacetyl)amino)ethyl)amino)naphtalene-1-sulfonic acid

IAH : institute of animal health

IAP : 1) inhibitor of apoptosis protein ; 2) integrin associated protein ; 3) intracisternal A-particle

IAPP : islet amyloid polypeptide

IAT : indirect antiglobulin test

IB : 1) immunoblot test ; 2) IGF BP homologues

IBC : institutional biosafety committee

IBD : 1) inflammatory bowel disease ; 2) identity because descendant

ibid. : ibidem (i.e. : in the same place)

IBM : inclusion body myopathy (or myositis)

IBMX : 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine

IBR : in-between RING (region)

IBS : 1) irritable bowel syndrome ; 2) identity because same

IC : 1) intermediate compartment ; 2) immune complex ; 3) intracerebral(ly) (i.c.) ; 4) interstitial cystitis ; 5) intracytoplasmic ; 6) intracranial (i.c.)

IC50 : inhibitory concentration 50%

ICAD : inhibitor of CAD

ICAM : interCAM

ICAT : isotope-coded affinity tag

ICBG : international cooperative biodiversity groups

ICC : 1) intracellular cytokine ; 2) immunocytochemistry

ICD : implanted cardiac defibrillator

ICDH : isocitrate dehydrogenase

ICE : 1) IL-1b converting enzyme ; 2) internal combustion engine

ICE-LAP : ICE-like apoptotic protease

ICER : 1) incremental cost-effectiveness ratio ; 2)  inducible cAMP early repressor

ICErel. : ICE/CED-3 related protease

ICF : immunodeficiency, centromere instability and facial abnormalities (syndrome)

ICFTU : international complement fixation test unit

ICGEB : International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology

Ich : ICE and ced-3 homologue

ICM : inner cell mass (cell)

ICNV : international committee on nomenclature of viruses

ICOS : inducible co-stimulator

ICPI : intracerebral pathogenicity index

ICR : internal control of expression

ICS : 1) intracytoplasmic cell staining ; 2) intracellular cytokine staining

ICSBP : IFN consensus sequence binding protein

ICSH : interstitial cell-stimulating hormone

ICSI : intracytoplasmic sperm injection

ICT : inflammation of connective tissue

ICTV : international committee on taxonomy of viruses

ICU : intensive care unit

ICV : intracerebroventricular

ID : 1) immunobiological distance ; 2) inside diameter (i.d.) ; 3) idiotype or idiotypic determinant (Id) ; 4) idem (i.e. : the same) (id) ; 5) immune-reactive domain ; 6) immunodominance ; 7) intradermal (i.d.)

ID50 : infective dose median

IDC : 1) indwelling catheter ; 2) infiltrating ductal carcinoma

IDCM : idiopathic DCM

IDDM : insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

IDDS : implantable drug delivery system

IDL : 1) intermediate-density lipoprotein ; 2) interactive data language

IDMT : isoflavone (or isoflavanone) dimethylallyl transferase

IDO : indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase

IUDOX : iododoxorubicin

IDW : initial deflection width

IE : 1) immediate-early ; 2) immunoelectrophoresis ; 3) id est (i.e. : the same) (i.e.) ; 4) infective endocarditis

IEC : 1) intestinal epithelial cell ; 2) ion-exchange chromatography

IEE : idiopathic eosinophilic syndrome

IEF : isoelectric focusing

IEL : intraepithelial lymphocyte

IETD : Ile-Glu-Thr-Asp

IF : 1) inititiation factor ; 2) intermediate filament ; 3) intra footpad (i.f.) ; 4) immunofluorescence

IFA : 1) indirect fluorescent Ab (test) ; 2) incomplete Freund's adjuvant

IFC : international fuel cell

IFG : impaired fasting glucose

I-FLICE : inhibitor of FLICE

IFN : interferon

IFP : interstitial fluid pressure

IFR : isoflavone reductase

IFU : inclusion-forming unit

Ig : immunoglobulin

IGCL : internal granular cell layer

IgD : Ig-like domain

IGF : insulin-like growth factor

IGFBP : IGF binding protein

IGIF : IFNg-inducing factor

IGL : internal granular layer

IGM : inheritable genetic modification

IGS : intergenic spacer

IGT : impaired glucose tolerance

IH : infectious hepatitis

IHA : indirect haemagglutination

IHC : 1) inner hairy cell ; 2) immunohistochemistry

IHF : intergration host factor

Ihh : Indian hedgehog

IHP : inositol hexaphosphate

IIC : islet-infiltrating cvell

IkB : inhibitor of NF-kB

IKK : IkB kinase

IL : interleukin

IL-1RA : IL-1 receptor antagonist

ILA : induced by lymphocyte activation

ILC : IL-11Ra-locus chemokine

ILD : interstitial lung disease

Ile : isoleucin

ILF : isolated lymphoid follicle

ILK : integrin-linked kinase

ILT : Ig-like transcript

IM : 1) intra-muscular(ly) (i.m.) 2) informative meioses ; 3) infectious mononucleosis

IMAC : immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography

IMCD : inner medullary collecting duct

IMCI : integrated management of childhood illness

IMCT : inner medullary collecting tubule

IMD : integrin-mediated death

IMDM : Iscove's modified Dulbecco's medium

IMEM : Iscove's minimal essential medium

IMIG : i.m. Ig

IML : intermediolateral (cell column)

IMM : inner mitochondrial membrane

IMP : inosine monophosphate

IMTP : immune thrombocytopenic purpura

IMV : 1) invasive mechanical ventilation ; 2) intracellular mature virion

IN : 1) inch (unit) (in/in.) ; 2) integrase ; 3) intranasal(ly) (i.n.)

INAA : instrumental neutron activation analysis

INCENP : inner centromere protein

IND : investigational new drug

in d. : in dies (i.e. : daily)

INH : 1) isoniazid ; 2) inhibitor

inj : injection, injury

INK4 : inhibitor of CDK4

Ino : inosine

inoc : inoculate

inop : inoperable, inoperative

INR : international normalized ratio

Ins : inositol

Insc : Inscuteable

InsP3 : inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate

INS : insulin

INSCOM : intelligence and security command

int : 1) internal ; 2) (site of) int(egration)

intein : int(ron-containing prot)ein

IOM : institute of medicine

IOMT : isoflavone 4'-O-methyltransferase

IONO : ionomycin (iono)

IOP : intraocular pressure

IP : 1) immunoprecipitation / immunoprecipitate ; 2) intraperitoneal(ly) (i.p.) ; 3) Internet protocol (address) ; 4) I2 prostaglandin (receptor) ; 5) interaction pair

IP1 : inositol-1-phosphate

IP3 : inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate

IP4 : inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate

IPA : immobilized protein A

IPCC : intergovernmental panel on climate change

IPCR : inverse PCR

IPD : 1) immediate pigment darkening ; 2) iris pigment dispersion

IPF : 1) idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis ; 2) insulin promoter factor

IPG : immobilized pH gradient

IPMA : immunoperoxidase monolayer assay

IPP : isopentenyl pyrophosphate

IPPc : inositol polyphosphate phosphatase, catalytic (domain)

IPPV : intermittent positive pressure ventilation

IPSP : inhibitory post-synaptic potential

IPTG : isopropylthio-b-D-galactoside

IPV : inactivated polio vaccine

IQ : 1) Ile-Gln (CaM binding domain) ; 2) intelligence quotient ; 3) idem quod (i.e. : the same as) (i.q.)

IQR : interquartile range

IR : 1) ionizing radiation ; 2) infrared ; 3) immune response (Ir) ; 4) immunoreactive (ir) ; 5) ischemia-reperfusion (injury) ; 6) inhibitory receptor

IRAK : IL-1R-associated kinase

IRB : institutional review board

IRBC :infected RBC (iRBC)

IRBP : interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein

IRD : inter-resource duplex

IRE : 1) iron RE ; 2) interspersed RE

IRES : internal ribosome entry site

IRF : IFN regulatory factor (domain)

IRI : 1) ischemia reperfusion injury ; 2) intermated recombinant inbreds

IRIS : international randomized study of interferon versus STI571

IRL : internal repeat long

IRM : interference reflectance microscopy

IRMA : immunoradiometric assay

IRP : island recovery PCR

IRR : insulin receptor-related receptor

IRS : 1) insulin receptor substrate ; 2) internal repeat short

IRS-PCR : interspersed repetitive sequence PCR

IRV : inspiratory reserve volume

IS : 1) insertion sequence ; 2) inner segment ; 3) immunological synapse ; 4) intrastriatal

ISA : 1) intrinsic sympathomimetic activity ; 2) iris stromal atrophy

ISCOM : immune-stimulating complex

ISG : IFN-stimulated gene

ISH : in situ hybridization

ISI : 1) international sensitivity index ; 2) institute for scientific information

ISID : international society for infectious diseases

ISO : international organization for standardization

ISP : 1) internet service provider ; 2) intermediate (or immature) single-positive

ISR : in-stent restenosis

ISRCTN : international standard randomised controlled trial number

ISS : immunostimulatory sequence

ISSN : issue number

ISSR : inter-simple sequence repeat (amplification)

ISRE : (type I) IFNs-stimulated RE

ISTR : inverse sequence-tagged repeat

IT : 1) ion trap ; 2) intermediate temperature ; 3) intratracheal(ly) (administration) (i.t.) ; 4) immunotoxin

ITA : inhibitor of T-cell apoptosis

ITAC : interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant

ITAM : immunoreceptor Tyr-based activating motif

ITGV : intrathoracic gas volume

ITIM : immunoreceptor Tyr-based inhibitory motif

ITN : insecticide-treated bednet

ITP : 1) inosine triphosphate ; 2) isotachophoresis ; 3) idiopathic (or immunologic) thrombocytopenic purpura

ITR : inverted terminal repeat

I-TRAF : TRAF-interacting protein

ITSM : immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif

ITT : intention to treat

IU : international unit

IUD : 1) intrauterine device ; 2) ioddeoxyuridine

IUGR : intrauterine growth retardation

IUPAC : international union of pure and applied chemistry

IUT : in utero transplant

IV : intra-venous(ly) (i.v.)

IVA : isovanillic acid

IVA-CH3-TFA : isovanillic acid methyl ester trifluoroacetate

IVAlc-TFA : isovanillylalcohol trifluoroacetate

Ivan-TFA : isovanillin trifluoroacetate

IVC : inspiratory vital capacity

IVF : in vitro fertilization

IVIG : i.v. Ig

IVPI : intravenous pathogenicity index

IVS : 1) intervening sequence ; 2) interventricular septum ; 3) in vitro stimulatiomn

IVT : in vitro transcription

- J -

# A B CDEFGHI J KLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

J : joule (unit)

JAB  : Jun-activation domain-binding

Jak : Ja(nus-family tyrosine) k(inase) or Just another kinase

JCA : juvenile chronic arthritis

JCR : journal citation reports

JDM : juvenile dermatomyositis

JE : Japanese encephalitis

JEV : Japanese encephalitis virus

JH : Jak homology (domain)

JK : Jurkat (cell line)

JM : juxtamembrane (amino acids)

JME : juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

JMH : John-Milton-Hagen (human blood group)

JMT : jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase

JNK : c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase

JRA : juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

JVP : jugular venous pressure


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