ANTIMICROBIAL XENOBIOTICS They use comparative biochemical differences between mammalian machineries at one side and Archaea, Bacteria, lower Eukarya or viral machineries at the other side. Antimicrobials may have a cidal (killing) effect or a static (inhibitory) effect (useful to induce active immunization against recurrent infections, but dangerous in immunocompromised patients) on a range of microbes (antibiosis) : sometimes a static compound may become a cidal compound just by increasing its dose. The range of Bacteria or other microorganisms that is affected by a certain antibiotic is expressed as its activity spectrum / range of activity. Please note sometimes antimicrobial chemotherapy can be started before knowing the identity of the infecting microorganism, using likelihood considerations (age, sex, endemic infections, immunological status, localization of infection, ...).
Parameters that influence antimicrobial choice are : Antimicrobial therapy usually lasts > 5 days (> 5 months in prostatis) to avoid cronicization of infection.
Antimicrobial associations are rare (obviously only sinergy and indifference are useful !) and increase just the number of side effects : so associations are used only if microbe undergoes rapid gene drift (e.g. Antimicrobials can be classified according to source as follows : Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) => antibiograms Microorganisms may have ... microbicide : an agent that destroys microbes. The ideal vaginal microbicide must have in vivo activity against HIV-1 and other STD pathogens as well as a differential effect on the viability of human cells and tissues encountered during use as a topical agent. On the one hand, the ideal agent should be effective against incoming cells infected by STD pathogens. Specifically, microbicides that effectively reduce or eliminate the risk of HIV-1 transmission must kill HIV-1-infected immune cells (T cells, monocytes, and macrophages) as well as inactivate cell-free virions. On the other hand, topical microbicides must have minimal or no impact on the viability, function, and structural integrity of the vaginal and cervical epithelium. Although preclinical, in vitro assays of immune and epithelial cell sensitivity to candidate microbicides are necessary steps in the development of a potential microbicide, in vitro assays may fail to predict a compound's in vivo activityref1, ref2. One approach previously thought to be a necessary prerequisite for defining the fidelity of in vitro assays was the use of tissues or cells of primary human origin to test candidate microbicidesref1, ref2. However, compared to available human immune and epithelial cell lines, primary tissues and cells are more difficult to acquire and isolate, less convenient and more expensive to maintain, potentially contaminated with unwanted cell populations, and prone to donor-specific variationref. Web resources
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