CHEMICAL CAUSES (TOXICS / BIOCIDES) => TOXICOLOGY

Table of contents : 


  • General toxicology
  • Chemical elements
  • hydrogen
  • metabolic acidosis
  • respiratory acidosis
  • metabolic alkalosis
  • respiratory alkalosis
  • oxygen
  • sodium
  • hyponatremia 
  • hypernatremia
  • magnesium
  • phosphorus
  • chlorine
  • potassium
  • hypokalemia
  • hyperkalemia
  • calcium
  • hypocalcemia
  • hypercalcemia
  • iron
  • cuprum
  • zinc
  • arsenic
  • iodine
  • mercury
  • Endogenous metabolites
  • ketones
  • lactic acid
  • creatinine
  • uric acid
  • urea
  • homocysteine
  • catecholamines
  • dyslipidemias
  • triglycerides
  • cholesterol
  • glucose
  • bilirubin
  • Naturally occurring toxins (taxonomic classification) 
  • Synthetic chemicals (classification according to use)
  •  Classification according to induced damage :
  • Occupational toxicology
  • Web resources

  • Chemical elements (below are listed alterations of plasma concentrations; see also alterations of urinary concentrations). When perfusion pressure falls, the homeostatic mechanisms of the human body tend to preserve euvolemia rather than concentration of solutes

    Metabolites : Fredrickson and Lees classification : a scheme for subdividing the familial hyperlipoproteinemias on the basis of phenotypes

    total lipidemia nmol/L (mg/dL)
    chylomicron (derived from dietary sources)
    triglycerid (mg/dL)
    cholesterol
    HDL-Ch
    LDL-Ch
    VLDL-Ch (derived from body stores rather than dietary sources
    IDL-Ch
    type I / chylomicronemia syndrome / essential familial hyperlipemia / exogenous hyperlipemia / familial fat-induced hyperlipemia / Bürger-Grütz syndrome (rare!) 
    high
    > 8.5 (> 750, up to 10,000)
    high
     
    (high)


    type II / familial hypercholesterolemic xanthomatosis / hyper-b
    -lipoproteinemia
    IIA :familial hypercholesterolemia (FH)
  • polygenic (95%) : severity is influenced by saturated fatty acid and cholesterol content in diet, age, and physical activity
  • autosomal dominant
  • autosomal recessive (ARH)
  • familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) (autosomal dominant)

  • heterozygote : 7-13 (275-500) 

    homozygote : > 13 (> 500)

    low/ normal
    high
    normal
    high

    high
    IIB / mixed hyperlipemia / combined hyperlipidemia : an abnormality that interferes with regulation of activity of HMG CoA reductase, the rate-controlling enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis 
    6.5-13 (250-500)

    high : 2.8-8.5 (250-750)
    high

    high
    high

    type III / familial dysbetalipoproteinemia / remnant hyperlipidemia / remnant removal disease / broad-beta disease
    • homozygosis for allele 2 of apoE
    • other mutations (0.01%)
    6.5-13 (250-500)

    2.8-5.6 (250-500)
    high

    normal
    high
    high
    type IV, carbohydrate-induced hyperlipoproteinemia / endogenous hyperlipemia
    • familial hypertriglyceridemia (mild)
    • sporadic hypertriglyceridemia
    • Tangier disease : an autosomal recessive disorder of lipoprotein and lipid metabolism due to mutations in ABCA1 characterized by absence in plasma of normal HDL, deficiency of apoA-I and apoA-II, low to normal LDL, and high triglycerides, and by accumulation in body tissues of cholesteryl esters. Clinical signs include enlargement and orange coloring of tonsils, pharyngeal mucosa, and rectal mucosa; recurrent peripheral neuropathy; splenomegaly; and corneal infiltration.


    2.8-8.5 (250-750)
    normal


    high

    type V / combined fat- and carbohydrate-induced hyperlipemia / mixed hyperlipemia = type I + type IV
    high
    high
    high
     
    normal
    high

    Organic toxics are named poisons.

    Naturally occurring toxins(=>toxinology) : nitrogen-containing heterocycles are termed alkaloids. As compounds of biological origin, toxins are often classed as biological agents, but they are not infectious and are more similar to chemicals with respect to their military potential for tactical use; they should be considered to be chemical agents. Therefore the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) (1993) also includes toxins as chemical agents, and, specifically includes toxins in its control regime along with other highly toxic chemicals.
    Toxins can be classified according to the targeted tissue(s) / organ(s), e.g. :

    Otherwise a more pragmatical classification is that based on the taxonomy of the producer species :
  •  stramenopiles
  • Viridiplantae toxins
  • Haptophyceae
  • Prymnesiales
  • Prymnesium
  • Metazoa toxins
  • Synthetic chemicals : chemicals toxic or lethal to living organisms