locomotor system : the structures in a living organism responsible
for locomotion; in humans these consist of the muscles,
and ligaments of the lower limbs as well as the
that supply them.
systema skeletale / skeletal system : the bones (pars ossea systematis
skeletalis) and cartilages (pars cartilaginea systematis skeletalis) of
systema musculare / muscular system / musculi : in TA terminology,
the nomenclature relating to the muscles and to the bursae and synovial
cartilage / cartilago (see also diseases
: a specialized, fibrous connective tissue, forming most of the temporary
skeleton of the embryo, providing a model in which most of the bones develop,
and constituting an important part of the growth mechanism of the organism.
It exists in several types, the most important of which are hyaline cartilage,
elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage. Also used as a general term to designate
a mass of such tissue in a particular site in the body.
cartilage lacuna : any of the small cavities within the cartilage
matrix, containing a chondrocyte, or cartilage cell
elastic, reticular or yellow cartilage
: a substance that is more opaque, flexible, and elastic than hyaline cartilage,
and is further distinguished by its yellow color. The interstitial
substance is penetrated in all directions by frequently branching fibers
which give all the reactions for elastic
Cell types : elastic cartilage chondrocyte
hyaline cartilage / chondroid :
a flexible, somewhat elastic, semitransparent substance with an opalescent
tint, composed of a basophilic, fibril-containing interstitial substance
with cavities in which the chondrocytes occur. The matrix nearest the chondrocytes
is intensely staining; although the matrix appears homogeneous, collagen
fibrils may be visualized by polarized light or electron microscopy.
Cell types : hyalinous cartilage chondrocyte
cellular or parenchymatous cartilage : a variety composed almost
entirely of cells, with little interstitial substance
fibrocartilage / stratified cartilage
: a type of cartilage made up of typical cartilage cells (chondrocytes),
with parallel thick, compact collagenous bundles forming the interstitial
substances, separated by narrow clefts enclosing the encapsulated cells
circumferential fibrocartilage : fibrocartilage that forms a rim about
a joint cavity.
spongy or connecting fibrocartilage : a disk of fibrocartilage that attaches
opposing bones to each other by synchondrosis
fibrocartilago navicularis : a fibrocartilaginous facet on the dorsal surface
of the plantar calcaneonavicular ligament that helps form the articular
cavity for the head of the talus.
Developmental timing :
centers of chondrification / protochondral tissue : dense aggregations
of embryonic mesenchymal cells at sites of future cartilage formation
temporary, ossifying or precursory cartilage : any cartilage that
is being replaced by bone or that is normally destined to be replaced by
bone, as in cartilage bones
permanent cartilage : cartilage that does not normally become ossified
calcified cartilage : cartilage in which granules of calcium phosphate
and calcium carbonate have been deposited in the interstitial substance
Genetic markers :
extracellular matrix : collagen type II, collagen type C, aggrecan, link
transcription factors : Sox9, scleraxis
bone / osseous tissue (see also diseases
: the hard form of connective tissue that constitutes the majority of the
skeleton of most vertebrates
Microscopic anatomy :
cell types (osseous or osteoprogenitor
cells) of basic multicellular units (BMU) / bone remodeling units
(BRU) : relatively undifferentiated cells found on or near all of the
free surfaces of bone, which, under certain circumstances, undergo division
and transform into ...
osteoblasts / stromal cells / Gegenbaur's
cell produce OPG-L / RANK-L / ODF
first (which binds to RANK
on osteoclast progenitors) and OPG
then (which act as a soluble decoy receptor) => osteocyte
bone or osseous lacuna : a
small cavity within the bone matrix containing an osteocyte and from which
slender canaliculi radiate and penetrate the adjacent lamellae to anastomose
with the canaliculi of neighboring lacunae, thus forming a system of cavities
interconnected by minute canals
: ITAM-dependent costimulatory signals activated by multiple immunoreceptors
are essential for the maintenance of bone homeostasis. OPG-L
/ RANK-L / ODF
are not sufficient to activate the signals required for osteoclastogenesisref
or resorption lacuna : a pit or concavity found in bones undergoing
resorption, frequently containing osteoclasts. Similar lacunae also may
be found in eroding surfaces of cementum, in which cementoclasts may or
may not be located
bone matrix / osteoid (35%) : the organic
matrix of bone; young bone that has not undergone calcification, consisting
type I collagen / ossein / ostein
(90%). Mature type I collagen is cross-linked within the molecule through
the a chains and between adjacent collagen molecules
by the pyridinium crosslinks, pyridinoline (PYD), and deoxypyridinoline
(DPD), providing rigidity and stregth
osteocollagenous fibers : fibers gathered together into bundles
and united by a special binding substance in the interstitial substance
osteogenetic or osteogenic fibers : precollagenous fibers formed
by osteoclasts and becoming the fibrous component of bone matrix.
osseomucin : the homogeneous ground substance that binds together
the collagen and elastic fibrils of bony tissue
osseomucoid : a mucin existing in bone.
Sympathetic signalling via b2-AR
present on osteoblasts controls bone formation downstream of leptin.
The sympathetic nervous system favours bone resorption by increasing expression
in osteoblast progenitor cells of the osteoclast differentiation factor
This sympathetic function requires phosphorylation (by PKA) of ATF4, a
cell-specific CREB-related transcription factor essential for osteoblast
differentiation and function. That bone resorption cannot increase in gonadectomized
Adrb2-deficient mice highlights the biological importance of this regulation,
but also contrasts sharply with the increase in bone resorption characterizing
another hypogonadic mouse with low sympathetic tone, the ob/ob mouse.
This discrepancy is explained, in part, by the fact that CART,
a neuropeptide whose expression is controlled by leptin and nearly abolished
in ob/ob mice, inhibits bone resorption by modulating Rankl expression.
Leptin-regulated neural pathways control both aspects of bone remodelling,
and demonstrates that integrity of sympathetic signalling is necessary
for the increase in bone resorption caused by gonadal failureref.
inorganic, or mineral, component (65%) imparts the quality of rigidity
to bone : calcium salts
calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4))
calcium carbonate (CaCO3) (10%)
Types of bone tissues :
crossed fibers bone / woven bone / nonlamellated bone / primitive bone
: bony tissue found in the embryo and young children and in various pathologic
conditions in adults, in which the bone fails to show the oriented arrangement
of collagen fibers characteristic of lamellated bone
‡ at birth
concentrical lamellae bone
‡ at puberty
osteon or lamellar bone : the normal type of adult bone
compact bone : the compact bone of the shaft of a bone that surrounds
the medullary cavity. It is made of haversian systems : osteocytes
in concentrically arranged lamellae aroung central haversian canals
(blood vessels) and in contact with the blood vessels and with each other
through microscopic channels (canaliculi) in the matrix
cement line : a name applied to a line, visible in microscopic examination
of bone in cross section, marking the boundary of an osteon (haversian
bone island : a benign focus of mature cortical bone appearing within
trabecular bone on a radiograph
cancellous, spongy or trabecular bone is named for its appearance.
Osteocytes, blood vessels, and matrix are present and parallel arranged,
but not arranged in haversian systems. The cavities often contain red bone
marrow, which produces RBCs, platelets, and WBCs. It represents only 20-30%
of total bone mass but has a turnover rate 10-folds higher than that of
trabeculae of bone : anastomosing bony spicules in cancellous bone
which form a meshwork of intercommunicating spaces that are filled with
Bone mass usually increases up to age 30 (in males it is usually 10% higher
than in females) and decreases starting since age 40 : in females decline
is faster in the 10 years after menopause.
foramen : natural opening into or through bone.
foramen nutricium / foramen nutriens / nutrient foramen : any one
of the passages that admit the nutrient vessels to the medullary cavity
of a bone.
nutrient vessels : vessels that supply nutritive elements to special
tissues, such as arteries entering the substance of bone, or supplying
walls of the blood vessels themselves.
arteria nutricia / nutrient artery / arteria nutriens / medullary artery
: any artery that supplies the marrow of a long bone
capitulum : a little head, or a small eminence on a bone by which
it articulates with another bone.
ossification : the formation of bone
or of a bony substance; the conversion of fibrous tissue or of cartilage
into bone or a bony substance.
endochondral or cartilaginous ossification : ossification that occurs
in and replaces cartilage => cartilage,
endochondral, replacement, or substitution bone : any bone that develops
within cartilage, in contrast to membrane bone, ossification taking place
within a cartilage model
intramembranous ossification : ossification that occurs in and replaces
connective tissue, as occurs in the calvaria and in periosteal bone formation
=> membrane bone : any bone that
develops within a connective tissue membrane (e.g. skull and facial bones,
clavicle, and ribs), in contrast to cartilage bone
periosteal ossification : a type of intramembranous bone formation
osteogen : the substance composing the inner layer of the periosteum,
from which bone is formed
metaplastic ossification : the development of bony substance in
normally soft structures.
heterotopic ossification : the formation of bone in abnormal locations,
secondary to pathology either at the local site or elsewhere.
ectopic ossification : a pathological condition in which bone arises
in tissues not in the osseous system and in connective tissues usually
not manifesting osteogenic properties.
perichondral ossification : that which occurs in a layered manner
beneath the perichondrium or, later, the periosteum.
centrum or punctum ossificationis / ossification
center or point : any point at which the process of ossification begins
in bones; in a long bone there is a primary center for the diaphysis and
a secondary center for the epiphysis
centrum or punctum ossificationis primarium / primary ossification center
or point : the first point at which a bone begins to ossify
centrum or punctum ossificationis secundarium / secondary ossification
center or point : a point from which ossification proceeds that arises
after a primary ossification center; it is concerned with progressive ossification
toward the end of a bone
osteite : an independent bony element or center of ossification
sesamoid bones : numerous ovoid nodular bones, often small, usually
found embedded within a tendon or joint capsule, principally in the hands
and feet (ossa sesamoidea manus and ossa sesamoidea pedis, respectively);
2 sesamoid bones, the fabella and patella, are associated with the knee
Classification of bones :
long bones are the bones of the arms, legs, hands, and feet.
epiphyses / apophysis ossium : the expanded
articular end of a long bone, developed from a secondary ossification center,
made of spongy bone covered with a thin layer of compact bone, which during
the period of growth is either entirely cartilaginous or is separated from
the shaft by the epiphyseal cartilage
annular epiphyses : secondary growth centers occurring as rings
at the periphery of the superior and inferior surfaces of the vertebral
epiphyseal or growth disk or plate / cartilago epiphysialis / conjugation
or epiphyseal cartilage : the disk or plate of cartilage interposed
between the epiphysis and the shaft of the bone during the period of growth;
by its growth the bone increases in length
metaphysis : the wider part at the extremity
of the shaft of a long bone, adjacent to the epiphyseal disk. During development
it contains the growth zone and consists of spongy bone; in the
adult it is continuous with the epiphysis
Wagner's line : a thin whitish line at the junction of the epiphysis
and diaphysis of a bone, formed by preliminary calcification
diaphysis / shaft : the elongated cylindrical
portion of a long bone, between the epiphyses, which are usually articular
and wider than the shaft; it consists of a tube of compact bone, enclosing
the marrow canal / medullary cavity contains yellow bone marrow,
which is mostly adipose tissue which gradually replaces the red bone marrow
short bones are the bones of the wrists and ankles.
flat bones are the bones of the ribs, shoulder blades, hips, and
irregular bones are those of the vertebrae and face.
Anatomy : there is a total of 206 bones in
the human body.
endoskeleton / neuroskeleton : the bony and cartilaginous skeleton
of the body, exclusive of that part of the skeleton which is of dermal
The skeleton is divided into
axial skeleton (80 bones) protects the brain, spinal cord, sensory
organs, and soft tissue of chest cavity and supports the body weight over
skull / cranium (28)
osteocranium : the fetal cranium during its stage of ossification
maxillary bones (2) forms the floor and medial portion of the rim
of the orbit, the walls of the nasal cavity, and the anterior roof of the
mouth (hard palate), i.e. the upper jaw
maxillary sinus (air cavity that opens into nasal cavity);
palatine process (projection that forms anterior part of hard palate);
sockets (conical depressions that hold roots of upper teeth).
zygomatic bones / cheekbone / jugal bone / mala / malar bone / os zygomaticum
(2) : the arch of bone beneath the eye that forms the prominence of the
cheek. They are found on each side of the skull, articulating with the
frontal bone and the maxilla to complete the lateral wall of the orbit.
Along the lateral margin, each gives rise to a slender bony extension that
curves laterally and posteriorly to meet a process from the temporal bone,
together forming the zygomatic arch.
zygomaticofacial foramen / foramen zygomaticofaciale : the opening
on the anterior surface of the zygomatic bone for the zygomaticofacial
nerves and vessels.
zygomatico-orbital foramen / foramen zygomaticoorbitale : of the
2 openings on the orbital surface of each zygomatic bone, which transmit
branches of the zygomatic branch of the trigeminal nerve and branches of
the lacrimal artery.
zygomaticotemporal foramen / foramen zygomaticotemporale : the opening
on the temporal surface of the zygomatic bone for passage of the zygomaticotemporal
Riolan's nosegay : the group of muscles that take their origin from
the styloid process of the temporal bone
palatine bones (2) form the posterior surface of the hard palate.
The superior surfaces of the horizontal portion of each contributes to
the floor of the nasal cavity. The superior tip of the vertical portion
of each forms a small portion of the inferior wall of the orbit.
foramen palatinum majus / greater palatine foramen / posterior palatine
foramen / pterygopalatine foramen / sphenopalatine foramen : the inferior
opening of the great palatine canal, found laterally on the horizontal
plate of each palatine bone opposite the root of each third molar tooth;
it transmits a palatine nerve and artery
foramina palatina minora / lesser palatine foramina : the openings
of the lesser palatine canals behind the palatine crest and the greater
mandible (1) forms the lower jaw.
body (U-shaped portion with lower teeth);
condyles (oval projections that articulate with the temporal bones);
sockets (conical depressions that hold roots of lower teeth)
mental foramen / foramen mentale : an opening on the lateral part
of the body of the mandible, opposite the second bicuspid tooth, for passage
of the mental nerve and vessels..
lacrimal bones (2) are located within the orbit on its medial surface
and articulate with the frontal, ethmoid, and maxillary bones.
lacrimal canal (opening for nasolacrimal duct to take tears to nasal cavity).
nasal bones (2) form the bridge of the nose and articulate with
the superior frontal bone and the maxillary bones.
inferior nasal conchae (2) project from the lateral walls of the
vomer (1). The inferior margin articulates with the paired palatine
bones and, with the ethmoid bone, supports a prominent partition that forms
part of the nasal septum.
true ribs (14) are 7 pairs that reach the anterior body wall, and
are connected to the sternum by separate cartilaginous extensions (costal
false ribs (10) are ribs 8-12 that do not attach directly to the
sternum. The last two pairs are floating ribs because they have no connection
with the sternum.
sternum (1) has three parts in the adult. The manubrium articulates
with the clavicles of the appendicular skeleton and with the cartilages
of the first pair of ribs. The body ends at the xiphoid process.
appendicular skeleton (126) : provides internal support and positioning
of arms and legs; supports and moves axial skeleton.
pectoral girdle (4)
scapula (2) is commonly called the "shoulder blade" and is supported
and positioned by the skeletal muscles. It has no bony or ligamentous bonds
to the thoracic cage, but is extremely important for muscle attachment.
glenoid fossa (depression that articulates with humerus)
spine (long, posterior process for muscle attachment)
acromian process (articulates with clavicle)
clavicle (2) is commonly called the "collarbone" and articulates
with the manubrium of the sternum, and is the only direct connection between
the pectoral girdle and the axial skeleton.
acromial end (articulates with scapula)
sternal end (articulates with manubrium of sternum)
upper limbs (60):
humerus (2) extends from the scapula to the elbow
head (articulates with the ulna);
olecranon fossa (posterior, oval depression for the olecranon process
of the ulna);
capitulum humeri / capitulum of humerus / capitellum / little or radial
head of humerus : an eminence on the distal end of the lateral epicondyle
of the humerus for articulation with the head of the radius
trochlea (concave surface that articulates with ulna)
radius (2) lies along the lateral side (or thumb side) of the forearm.
head (articulates with the ulna).
ulna (2) forms the medial support of the forearm.
olecranon process (fits into olecranon fossa of humerus);
semilunar notch (half-moon depression that articulates with the
trochlea of ulna).
proximal row (8) : from thenar to hypothenar
carpal scaphoid / navicular / os naviculare manus / os scaphoideum
lunate / semilunar (2)
triquetrum / pyramidal (2)
distal row (8) : from thenar to hypothenar
epipyramis / epitriquetrum : a small supernumerary carpal bone sometimes
found between the triquetrum, lunate, hamate, and capitate bones
metacarpals (10) are 5 pairs of bones that articulate with the distal
carpal bones forming the palm of the hand.
pseudoepiphysis : an accessory bone at the distal and the proximal
ends of the second metacarpal bone.
phalanges (28) are 14 pairs of "finger" bones. Four fingers contain
three phalanges while the pollex (thumb) has only 2.
pelvic girdle (2) articulates with the thigh bone.
os coxae (2) is commonly called the "hip bone," formed from a fusion
of three bones (ilium, ischium, and pubis)
ilium (flared upper portion)
iliac crest (upper edge of ilium)
posterior superior iliac spine (posterior continuation of iliac
ischium (lower, posterior portion)
pubis (anterior, medial portion)
pubic symphysis (joint between the two pubic bones)
pelvis : the inferior portion of the trunk
of the body, bounded anteriorly and laterally by the two hip bones and
posteriorly by the sacrum and coccyx. The pelvis is divided by a plane
passing through the terminal lines into the
pelvis major or spuria / false, greater or large pelvis : the part
of the pelvis superior to a plane passing through the iliopectineal lines.
pelvis minor / true, lesser or small pelvis : the part of the pelvis
inferior to a plane passing through the iliopectineal lines
The superior boundary of the pelvic cavity is the inlet (apertura pelvis
superior), and the inferior boundary of the pelvis minor is the outlet
(apertura pelvis inferior), which is bounded by the coccyx, the
symphysis pubis, and the ischium of either side. The outlet is closed by
the coccygeus and levator ani muscles and the perineal fascia, which form
the floor of the pelvis. The inlet and outlet each have three important
diameters: an anteroposterior (conjugate), an oblique, and a transverse,
the relations of which determine types variously classified by different
pelvis ossea / bony pelvis : the ring of bone forming the skeleton
of the pelvis, supporting the vertebral column and resting upon the inferior
members, and composed of the two hip bones anteriorly and laterally, and
the sacrum and coccyx posteriorly.
Caldwell-Moloy classification :
gynecoid pelvis (50%) : a pelvis having a rounded oval shape with
a well rounded anterior and posterior segment; it represents the normal
female pelvis : pelvic brim is a transverse ellipse (nearly a circle);
most favorable for delivery
android pelvis : a pelvis characterized by a wedge-shaped inlet
and narrowness of the anterior segment; used as a general designation of
a female pelvis showing characters typical of the pelvis in the male. Pelvic
brim is triangular; convergent side walls (widest posteriorly); prominent
ischial spines; narrow subpubic arch ; more common in white women
anthropoid pelvis : a female pelvis characterized by a long anteroposterior
diameter of the inlet, which equals or exceeds the transverse diameter.
Pelvic brim is an anteroposterior ellipse; gynecoid pelvis turned 90°;arrow
ischial spines ; much more common in black women
platypellic or platypelloid pelvis (3%) : a pelvis characterized
by flattening of the pelvic inlet, with a short anteroposterior and a wide
transverse diameter. Pelvic brim is transverse kidney shape; flattened
assimilation pelvis : a pelvis in which the transverse processes
of the last lumbar vertebra are fused with the sacrum (high-assimilation
pelvis—including 6 vertebral segments), or the last sacral vertebra
may fuse with the first coccygeal body (low-assimilation pelvis—including
only four vertebral segments).
beaked pelvis : one with the pelvic bones laterally compressed and
their anterior junction pushed forward, as in osteomalacia.
contracted pelvis : a pelvis in which there is a diminution of 1.5
to 2 cm in any important diameter; when all dimensions are proportionately
diminished it is a ...
generally contracted pelvis / pelvis justo minor : a pelvis that
is unusually small, with all its dimensions equally reduced
infantile or juvenile pelvis : a generally contracted pelvis characterized
by an oval shape, a high sacrum, and marked inclination of the walls.
coxalgic pelvis : one deformed in consequence of hip-joint disease.
brachypellic pelvis : an oval type of pelvis, the transverse diameter
of the inlet exceeding the anteroposterior diameter by 1 to 3 cm.
dolichopellic pelvis : an elongated pelvis, the anteroposterior
diameter of the inlet being greater than the transverse diameter.
mesatipellic pelvis : a round type of pelvis, the transverse diameter
of the inlet being equal to the anteroposterior diameter or being greater
by < 1 cm.
triangular pelvis : one with a triangular inlet.
round pelvis : one with an inlet of nearly circular outline.
cordate or cordiform pelvis : one that is somewhat heart shaped.
dwarf pelvis / pelvis nana : a small pelvis seen in several types
flat pelvis / pelvis plana : one in which the anteroposterior dimension
is abnormally reduced.
simple flat pelvis : one with a shortened anteroposterior diameter.
funnel-shaped pelvis : a female pelvis with a normal inlet, but
a greatly narrowed outlet.
pelvis justo major / giant pelvis : a pelvis that is unusually large,
with all its dimensions equally increased.
rachitic pelvis : one distorted as a result of rickets.
pelvis spinosa : a rachitic pelvis with the crest of the pubis very
osteomalacic pelvis : deformity of the pelvis due to absorption
by the bones of their calcium salts, as a result of which the bones become
soft and so flexible that they may be stretched or pushed together and
cause narrowing of the pelvic inlet.
pseudo-osteomalacic pelvis : a deformed pelvis simulating one affected
with osteomalacia, but resulting from other causes.
scoliotic pelvis : one deformed as a result of scoliosis.
kyphotic pelvis : one characterized by increase of the conjugate
diameter at the brim, with decrease of the transverse diameter at the outlet,
due to close proximity of the ischial spines and tuberosities.
pelvis obtecta : a kyphotic pelvis in which the vertebral column
extends horizontally across the pelvic inlet.
kyphoscoliotic pelvis : an irregularly contracted pelvis due to
lordotic pelvis : one associated with an anterior curvature in the
lumbar region of the vertebral column.
Otto pelvis : a pelvis in which the acetabulum is depressed, permitting
the head of the femur to protrude intrapelvically (see arthrokatadysis)
spider pelvis : a renal pelvis which in the pyelogram shows the
calices as narrow, string-like extensions, resembling the legs of a spider.
pseudospider pelvis : a congenitally small, long, thin renal pelvis
with calices that may simulate renal tumor urographically.
split pelvis : one with a congenital separation at the symphysis
pubis, often associated with exstrophy of the bladder.
spondylolisthetic pelvis / Prague or Rokitansky's pelvis : one in
which the last, or rarely the fourth or third, lumbar vertebra is dislocated
in front of the sacrum, more or less occluding the pelvic brim
conjugata anatomica pelvis / anatomical
conjugate of pelvis / conjugata vera pelvis / anteroposterior or conjugate
diameter of pelvis / anatomical, internal, or true conjugate (diameter)
/ diameter conjugata pelvis : the anteroposterior diameter of the pelvic
inlet (superior aperture of the pelvis), measured from the superior margin
of the symphysis pubis to the sacrovertebral angle; usually 11 cm
obstetric conjugate (diameter) / conjugata
vera obstetrica : the shortest anteroposterior diameter of the pelvic
inlet; the distance from a point 1 cm. below the top of the pubis to the
tip of the sacral promontory, measuring 11 to 13 cm. in the normal pelvis
(10.5-10.8 cm). So called because it is intimately concerned in the process
diameter obliqua pelvis / oblique
diameter of pelvis : the oblique diameter across the pelvic inlet,
measured from one sacroiliac articulation to the iliopubic eminence of
the other side. Designated right or left depending on which sacroiliac
joint is used for reference; the left is uniformly 0.5 cm. shorter than
the right (12 cm vs. 12.5 cm)
diameter transversa pelvis / transverse diameter of pelvis : the
greatest distance from side to side across the pelvic inlet.
average : 12 cm
maximal : 13.5 cm
transverse diameter of pelvic outlet / biischial
diameter : the distance between the medial surfaces of the ischial
tuberosities (average length 10.5-11 cm.)
conjugata diagonalis pelvis / diagonal
conjugate of pelvis / diagonal conjugate diameter : a diameter of the
pelvic inlet; the distance from the posterior surface of the symphysis
pubis to the tip of the sacral promontory; 12.5-14 cm. Approximate length
of fingers introitus to sacrum
coccygeopubic diameter : the distance from the tip of the coccyx
to the under margin of the symphysis pubis; 9-10 cm (12-12.5 cm including
intertuberal or intertuberous diameter
: the distance between the sciatic notches; 11 cm. Approximately width
conjugata externa pelvis / external
conjugate of pelvis / external conjugate diameter / Baudelocque's diameter
or line : the distance from the depression under the last lumbar spine
to the upper margin of the pubis
bisiliac diameter : the distance between the 2 most remote points
of the iliac crests.
bicristal diameter : the greatest distance between the external
margins of the iliac crests.
intercristal diameter or distance / distantia intercristalis : the
distance between the middle points of the iliac crests
bispinous diameter : the distance between the opposite spines of
interspinous diameter or distance / distantia interspinosa : the
greatest width between the anterior superior iliac spines
pubotuberous diameter : the distance from the tuberosity of the
ischium to a point on the superior ramus of the pubis which is located
directly perpendicular to the tuberosity.
sacropubic diameter : the distance from the tip of the sacrum or
coccyx to the lower margin of the symphysis pubis.
lower limbs (60):
femur (2), commonly called the "thigh bone," is the longest, strongest,
and heaviest bone in the body. Distally, it articulates with the tibia
at the knee joint. The head (epiphysis) articulates with the pelvis at
head (round process that articulates with hip bone);
neck (constricted portion distal to head);
greater trochanter (large lateral process for muscle attachment);
lesser trochanter (medial process for muscle attachment);
condyles (rounded processes that articulate with tibia).
tibia (2), commonly called the "shinbone," is the large medial bone
of the leg, attached to the patella by a ligament
condyles (articulates with femur);
medial malleolus (distal process - the medial "ankle bone").
fibula (2) parallels the lateral border of the tibia.
head (articulates with tibia);
lateral malleolus (distal process -- the lateral "ankle bone").
patella (2) is the "knee cap."
Blackburne-Peel ratio : the ratio of the perpendicular distance
between the tibial and patellar articular surfaces to the length of the
patellar articular surface with the knee in 30° of flexion; it is equal
to 0.8 in the normal knee
Insall-Salvati ratio : the ratio of the length of the ligamentum
patellae to the height of the patella, equal to approximately 1 in the
tarsals (14) include 7 pairs of bones :
calcaneus (heel bone)
talus / astragalus (articulates with calcaneus, tibia and fibula)
tarsal scaphoid / navicular bone / os naviculare (pedis) : the ovoid-shaped
tarsal bone that is situated between the talus and the three cuneiform
metatarsals (10) support the sole of the foot and numbered I to
V from medial to lateral with the distal ends forming the ball of the foot.
phalanges (28) have the same arrangement as with the fingers and
thumb only with the toes and great toe (hallux).
Genetic markers :
extracellular matrix : collagen type I, osteocalcin, bone sialoprotein,
capsula articularis / articular capsule
/ joint capsule / synovial capsule : the sac-like envelope which encloses
the cavity of a synovial joint by attaching to the circumference of the
articular end of each involved bone; it consists of a fibrous membrane
and a synovial membrane
articular cartilage / cartilago articularis / arthrodial cartilage /
diarthrodial cartilage / investing cartilage / obducent cartilage :
a thin layer of cartilage, usually hyaline, on the articular surface of
bones in synovial joints
connecting cartilage / interosseous cartilage : cartilage connecting
the surfaces of an immovable joint
synovium / membrana synovialis capsulae articularis
/ stratum synoviale capsulae articularis : synovial membrane of articular
capsule: the inner of the 2 layers of the articular capsule of a synovial
joint, composed of loose connective tissue and having a free smooth surface
that lines the joint cavity. It secretes the synovial fluid
villi synoviales / synovial villi : slender projections of the synovial
membrane from its free inner surface into the joint cavity.
synovia / synovial fluid : a transparent alkaline
viscid fluid, resembling the white of an egg, secreted by the synovial
membrane, and contained in joint cavities, bursae, and tendon sheaths
look : clean
consistence : viscous
quantity : 0-1 mL/joint
glucose : > (glycemia - 20 mg/dL)
proteins : 1.3 g / dL (20% of the normal protidemia
synovial cell B / synovial cells : fibroblasts lying between the
cartilaginous fibers in the synovial membrane of joints.
ligament : a band of tissue that connects
bones. Some ligaments are distinct fibrous structures; some are folds of
articular disk / discus
articularis : a pad composed of fibrocartilage or dense fibrous tissue
found in some synovial joints (acromioclavicular (Weitbrecht's cartilage),
temporomandibular, distal radioulnar, and sternoclavicular joints and between
the symphysial surfaces of the pubic bones); it extends into the joint
from a marginal attachment at the articular capsule and in some cases completely
divides the joint cavity into two separate compartments.
articular meniscus / joint meniscus
/ meniscus articularis : a pad, commonly a wedge-shaped crescent of
fibrocartilage or dense fibrous tissue, found in some synovial joints;
one side forms a marginal attachment at the articular capsule and the other
2 sides extend into the joint, ending in a free edge.
parameniscus : the structure or area
around the menisci (semilunar fibrocartilages) of the knee
They are classified according to their permitted range of motion:
synarthrosis : a bony junction that is immovable and is connected
by solid connective tissue; the two types are the fibrous joint (junctura
fibrosa) and the cartilaginous joint (junctura cartilaginea);
found between cranial bones and facial bones.
amphiarthrosis (slightly movable); symphysis; disc of fibrous cartilage
between bones; between vertebrae and pubic bones
articulatio bicondylaris / bicondylar articulation or joint : a
condylar joint with a meniscus between the articular surfaces, as in the
junctura synovialis / synovial joint / diarthrosis / diarthrodial joint
or articulatio / synovial articulations : a specialized joint permitting
more or less free movement, the union of the bony elements being surrounded
by an articular capsule enclosing a cavity lined by synovial membrane
unilocular joint : a synovial joint having only one cavity
articulatio complexa / articulatio composita / composite joint :
a type of synovial joint in which more than two bones are involved; called
also compound articulation or joint.
articulatio plana / plane articulation / arthrodia / gliding articulation
/ plane or gliding joint / arthrodial joint : a type of synovial joint
in which the opposed surfaces are flat or only slightly curved. Although
movement is possible, ligaments usually restrict such movement. Gliding
joints are found at the ends of the clavicles, between the carpal and tarsal
bones, and between the articular facets of adjacent vertebrae.
articulatio sellaris / sellar or saddle joint / articulatio condylaris
inversa / articulatio ovoidalis / ovoid articulation / saddle articulation
: a type of synovial joint in which the articular surface of one bone is
concave in one direction and convex in the direction at right angles to
the first (concavoconvex), and the articular surface of the second bone
is reciprocally convexoconcave; movement is possible along two main axes
at right angles to each other. Saddle joints are found at the base of the
thumb (carpometacarpal joint). "Twiddling the thumbs" is the best example
of movement of the saddle joints.
articulatio simplex / simple joint : a type of synovial joint in
which only two bones are involved
enarthrosis / articulatio spheroidea / spheroidal joint / ball-and-socket
articulation or joint / spheroidal articulation / multiaxial or polyaxial
joint / enarthrodial joint : a type of synovial joint in which
a spheroidal surface on one bone (“ball”) moves within a concavity (“socket”)
on the other bone; it is the most movable type of joint. They occur at
the shoulder and hip
articulatio cotylica : a type of ball and socket joint
hinge joints permit angular movement in a single plane, as with
the opening and closing of a door. Hinge joints are found between the occipital
bone and atlas in the axial skeleton, and the elbow, knee, ankle, and interphalangeal
joints of the appendicular skeleton.
pivot joints allow only for rotation as found between the atlas
and axis enabling the rotation of the head. They are also found between
the head of the radius and the proximal shaft of the ulna, permitting pronation
and supination of the palm.
ellipsoidal joints allow angular motion in two planes -- along or
across the length of an oval. In an ellipsoidal joint, an oval articular
face is nestled within a depression of an opposing surface. Such joints
connect fingers (metacarpal bones) and toes (metatarsal bones).
intervertebral disks / disci intervertebrales
/fibrocartilagines intervertebrales / intervertebral cartilages
/ fibrocartilage / ligaments : the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found,
from the axis to the sacrum, between the lower and upper sides (cartilagineous
plate and epiphysary ring) of the bodies of adjacent vertebrae,
each consisting of a fibrous ring (anulus fibrosus / outer part)
enclosing a pulpy center (nucleus pulposus / inner part). The hydration
of the nucleus pulposus decreases during daytime (decreasing overall body
height by 2 cm) and with aging
Cell types : interverterbral disk pulpy
sliding filament theory : a theory which postulates that the thin
and thick filaments of a myofibril slide past each other, while maintaining
their length, during muscle contraction
: myoglia / border fibril : a fibrillar substance formed by muscle
cells, and present only during early embryogenesis of muscle fibers
3 determination factors of the basic helix–loop–helix myogenic regulatory
factor (MRF) family, Myf3
/ Myod, Myf5
/ herculin / Mrf4, are thought to direct this transition because double-
or triple-mutant mice totally lack skeletal muscle fibres and myoblasts.
In the absence of these factors, progenitor cells remain multipotent and
can change their fate. Gene targeting studies have revealed hierarchical
relationships between these and the other MRF gene Myf4
/ myogenin, where the latter is regarded as a differentiation generef.
In the embryo and in the adult, skeletal muscle growth is dependent on
the proliferation and the differentiation of muscle progenitors present
within muscle masses. Despite the importance of these progenitors, their
embryonic origin is unclear. Electroporation of GFP in chick somites, video
confocal microscopy analysis of cell movements, and quail-chick grafting
experiments to show that the dorsal compartment of the somite, the dermomyotome,
is the origin of a population of muscle progenitors that contribute to
the growth of trunk muscles during embryonic and fetal life. Furthermore,
long-term lineage analyses indicate that satellite cells, which are known
progenitors of adult skeletal muscles, derive from the same dermomyotome
cell population. Embryonic muscle progenitors and satellite cells share
a common origin that can be traced back to the dermomyotomeref.
During vertebrate development, successive phases of embryonic and fetal
myogenesis lead to the formation and growth of skeletal muscles. Although
the origin and molecular regulation of the earliest embryonic muscle cells
is well understood, less is known about later stages of myogenesis. A new
cell population expresses the transcription factors Pax3 and Pax7 but no
skeletal-muscle-specific markers. These cells are maintained as a proliferating
population in embryonic and fetal muscles of the trunk and limbs throughout
development. Using a stable green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter targeted
to Pax3, they constitute resident muscle progenitor cells that subsequently
become myogenic and form skeletal muscle. Late in fetal development, these
cells adopt a satellite cell position characteristic of progenitor cells
in postnatal muscle. In the absence of both Pax3 and Pax7, further muscle
development is arrested and only the early embryonic muscle of the myotome
forms. Cells failing to express Pax3 or Pax7 die or assume a non-myogenic
fate. This resident Pax3/Pax7-dependent progenitor cell population constitutes
a source of myogenic cells of prime importance for skeletal muscle formation,
a finding also of potential value in the context of cell therapy for muscle
voluntary muscle : any muscle that normally is under the control
of the will; such muscles are nearly always composed of striated fibers.
Leydig's cylinders : bundles of muscular fibers separated by partitions
secondary synaptic or subneural clefts : evenly spaced lamella-like
clefts within the primary synaptic cleft, formed by infoldings of the sarcolemma
into the underlying sarcolemma of muscle
muscle bundle : one of the primary longitudinal subdivisions of
a muscle, made up of muscle fibers and separated from other bundles by
fascial septa or perimysium.
sarcolemma = cell membrane
sarcoplasm = cytoplasm
subsarcolemmal cisternae : hollow swellings of the tubules of the
sarcoplasmic reticulum; they participate in the coupling of the sarcoplasmic
reticulum with the sarcolemma in cardiac muscle.
attachment plaques : small regions of increased density along the
sarcolemma of skeletal muscles to which myofilaments seem to attach
dense body : any of the small regions of increased density in the
sarcoplasm of skeletal muscles to which myofilaments seem to attach
bands :a n elongated area with parallel or roughly parallel borders
that is distinct from the surrounding surface by its color, texture, or
A band or disk / Q, anisotropic or transverse disk : the dark-staining
zone of a sarcomere, whose center is traversed by the paler H band, which
in turn contains the darker M band
contraction band : one of the bands seen by light microscopy in
fully contracted muscle on either side of the Z band, caused by distortion
of the ends of the myosin filaments by the Z band
H band / Hensen's or Engelmann's disk : a relatively pale zone sometimes
seen traversing the center of the A band of fibrils of striated muscle
I band / isotropic or J disk : the band or disk within a striated
muscle fibril that appears as a light region under the light microscope
and as a dark region under polarized light; it contains the proteins actin,
troponin, and tropomyosin
M band or disk / Hensen's line / mesophragma : the narrow
dark band in the center of the H band of the sarcomere
Z band, disk or line / Amici's disk / Dobie's line or layer / intermediate
disk / Krause's membrane / telophragma / thin disk : a thin membrane
seen on longitudinal section as a dark line in the center of the I band;
the distance between successive Z bands serves to delimit the sarcomeres
of striated muscle
Brücke's lines : broad bands alternating with Z bands in the
fibrils of the striated muscles.
inophragma : ground membrane; a name given to the Z band and M band
(q.v. under band ) because they continue uninterruptedly as transverse
membranes through all the adjoining fibrils of a muscle fiber
triad (T) system : a system of transverse tubular invaginations
(T, or transverse, tubules) of the sarcolemma, each of which penetrates
deep into the muscle fiber. In mammalian skeletal muscle, they are located
at the junction of the A band with the I band, and in mammalian cardiac
muscle at the level of the Z band; the system plays a role in the excitation
and relaxation of muscle and provides an important additional surface for
the exchange of metabolites between muscle and the extracellular space
triad of skeletal muscle : a pair of terminal cisterns in close
apposition to the T tubule, running transversely across a myofibril of
skeletal muscle; in mammalian muscle there are two triads to each sarcomere,
situated at the A band–I band junction
terminal cisterns : pairs of transversely oriented channels that
are confluent with the sarcotubules, which together with an intermediate
T tubule constitute a triad of skeletal muscle
transverse (T) tubule : the transverse intracellular tubules invaginating
from the cell membrane and surrounding the myofibrils of the T system of
skeletal and cardiac muscle, serving as a pathway for the spread of electrical
excitation within a muscle cell, enabling the nearly simultaneous activation
of all myofibrils; in skeletal muscle, a T tubule is the intermediate element
of a triad of tubular structures, the other elements being a pair of terminal
dumbbells of Schäfer : microscopic bodies found in striated
Cell types : muscle fiber : any of
the cells of skeletal or cardiac muscle tissue. Skeletal muscle fibers
are cylindrical multinucleate cells containing contracting myofibrils,
across which run transverse striations, enclosed in a sarcolemma. Cardiac
muscle fibers contain one or sometimes two nuclei and myofibrils and are
separated from one another by an intercalated disk; although striated,
cardiac muscle fibers branch to form an interlacing network.
extrafusal fibers : ordinary muscle fibers, as opposed to the intrafusal
fibers of the muscle spindle.
type I fibres
/ red muscle fibres / slow twitch muscle fibers : small dark muscle
fibers rich in mitochondria, myoglobin, and sarcoplasm and with only faint
cross-striping; designed for slow but repetitive contractions over long
periods of time (slow oxidation and contraction, high effort resistance
and aerobic capacity)
type IIa fibres
/ intermediate muscle fibres : muscle fibers having characteristics
intermediate between red and white muscle fibers.
fibres / white muscle fibres / fast twitch muscle fibers : paler-colored
muscle fibers of larger diameter than slow twitch fibers, and having less
sarcoplasm and more prominent cross-striping; used for forceful and rapid
contractions over short periods of time (very fast contraction, very low
effort resistance, large motor units in neocortex, regulates subtle movements).
The peculiar protein is a-actinin-3
dark fibers : muscle fibers rich in sarcoplasm and having a dark
light fibers : muscle fibers poor in sarcoplasm and therefore more
transparent than dark fibers.
Motor unit potential : the sum of all synchronous depolarization
potentials generated by excitation of all muscular fibers within a given
Muscle contractions : a shortening
or reduction in size; in connection with muscles contraction implies shortening
and/or development of tension
concentric or shortening contraction : a muscle contraction in which
the ends of the muscle move closer together, as when a flexed limb is extended
eccentric or lengthening contraction : a muscle contraction in which
the ends of the muscle move farther apart, as when a limb is forcibly flexed
isometric contraction (d = k) : muscle contraction without appreciable
shortening or change in distance between its origin and insertion
isotonic contraction (F = k) : muscle contraction without appreciable
change in the force of contraction; the distance between the muscle's origin
and insertion becomes less.
isokinetic contraction (same force in all directions)
twitch : a brief contractile response of a skeletal muscle elicited
by a single maximal volley of impulses in the motor neurons supplying it
Rieger's brake phenomenon : the tendency of a muscle to maintain
itself in its normal resting position
Weber's paradox : the elongation of a muscle which has been so stretched
that it cannot contract.
idiodynamic control : nerve impulses from the cells of the ventral
gray column and the motor nuclei of the brain that maintain the muscles
in their normal trophic condition.
During intense contractions creatine phosphate and glucose are used, while
during moderate contractions glycogen and FFAs are catabolyzed.
Skeletal muscle is critically important to human performance and health,
but little is known of the genetic factors influencing muscle size,
strength, and its response to exercise training. The Functional single
nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) Associated with Muscle Size and Strength,
or FAMuSS, Study is a multicenter, NIH-funded program to examine the influence
of gene polymorphisms on skeletal muscle size and strength before and after
resistance exercise training. 100 men and women, age 18 - 40 yr, will train
their nondominant arm for 12 wk. Skeletal muscle size (magnetic resonance
imaging) and isometric and dynamic strength will be measured before and
after training. Individuals whose baseline values or response to training
deviate > or = 1.5 SD will be defined as outliers and examined for genetic
variants. Initially candidate genes previously associated with muscle performance
will be examined, but the study will ultimately attempt to identify genes
associated with muscle performance. FAMuSS should help identify genetic
factors associated with muscle performance and the response to exercise
training. Such insight should contribute to our ability to predict the
individual response to exercise training but may also contribute to understanding
better muscle physiology, to identifying individuals who are susceptible
to muscle loss with environmental challenge, and to developing pharmacologic
agents capable of preserving muscle size and functionref.
/ growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8) mutation associated with gross
muscle hypertrophy in a childref.
Anatomy / muscle
musculus dilatator / dilator (muscle) : a general term for a muscle
musculus articularis / articular muscle : a muscle that is attached
at one end to the synovial capsule of a joint.
musculus cutaneus / cutaneous muscle : striated muscle that inserts
into the skin, such as the platysma.
musculus fusiformis / fusiform muscle : a spindle-shaped muscle
in which the fibers are approximately parallel to the long axis of the
muscle but converge upon a tendon at either end.
musculus triangularis / triangular muscle : a muscle that is triangular
musculus quadratus / quadrate muscle : a square-shaped muscle.
musculus orbicularis / orbicular muscle : a muscle that encircles
a body opening, such as the eye or mouth.
fixation or fixator muscles : accessory muscles that serve to steady
musculus semipennatus or unipennatus / semipennate or unipennate muscle
: a muscle in which the fiber bundles approach the tendon of insertion
from only one direction and are inserted through only a small segment of
musculus bipennatus or pennatus / bipennate, penniform or pennate muscle
: a muscle in which the fibers approach the tendon of insertion from a
wide area and are inserted through a large segment of its circumference
musculus multipennatus / multipennate muscle : a muscle in which
the fiber bundles converge to several tendons.
musculus sphincter / sphincter muscle : a ringlike muscle that closes
a natural orifice; called also sphincter.
congenerous muscles : muscles having a common action or function
agonistic muscle : a muscle opposed in action by another muscle,
called the antagonist
synergic or synergistic muscles : muscles that assist one another
antagonistic muscle : a muscle that counteracts the action of another
muscle, called the agonist
antigravity muscles : those muscles, mainly extensors of the knees,
hips, and back, that by their tone resist the constant pull of gravity
in the maintenance of normal posture.
appendicular muscles : the muscles of a limb
cruciate muscle / musculus cruciatus : a muscle in which the fiber
bundles are arranged in the shape of an X
emergency muscles : muscles which ordinarily are not required in
the performance of an act but which assist the prime movers when an act
is performed with great force
epimeric muscle : a muscle derived from an epimere and innervated
by a posterior ramus of a spinal nerve
hypomeric muscle : a muscle derived from a hypomere and innervated
by an anterior ramus of a spinal nerve.
intrinsic muscle : a muscle that is contained (origin, belly, and
insertion) in the same limb or part.
extrinsic muscle : a muscle that does not originate in the same
limb or part in which it is inserted.
striated or striped muscle : any muscle whose fibers are divided
by transverse bands into striations, including cardiac and voluntary muscle;
often used as a synonym for voluntary muscle
postaxial muscle : a muscle on the dorsal side of a limb.
preaxial muscle : a muscle on the ventral side of a limb
fast or white muscle : the paler-colored muscle tissue of some mammals,
composed of fast twitch muscle fibers
slow or red muscle : the darker-colored muscle tissue of some mammals,
composed of slow twitch muscle fibers
vestigial muscle : a muscle that was once well developed but through
evolution has become rudimentary.
yoked muscles : muscles that normally act simultaneously and equally,
as in moving the eyes
musculi capitis : the muscles of the head.
facial and masticatory muscles / musculi faciales et masticatores
musculi faciales / musculi faciei / facial muscles / muscles of (facial)
expression : a group of cutaneous muscles of the facial structures,
which includes the muscles of the scalp, ear, eyelids, nose, and mouth,
and the platysma
musculus depressor anguli oris / depressor muscle of angle of mouth
: origin, lower border of mandible; insertion, angle of mouth; innervation,
facial; action, pulls down angle of mouth.
musculus depressor labii inferioris / depressor muscle of lower lip
/ musculus quadratus labii inferioris : origin, anterior portion of
lower border of mandible; insertion, orbicularis oris and skin of lower
lip; innervation, facial; action, depresses lower lip.
musculus depressor septi nasi / depressor muscle of nasal septum
: origin, incisor fossa of maxilla; insertion, ala and septum of nose;
innervation, facial; action, contracts nostril and depresses ala.
musculus depressor supercilii / superciliary depressor muscle :
a name given a few fibers of the orbital part of the orbicularis oculi
muscle that are inserted in the eyebrow, which they depress.
musculi incisivi labii inferioris / incisive muscles of inferior lip
: small bundles of muscle fibers, one arising from the incisive fossa of
the mandible on each side and passing laterally to the angle of the mouth.
musculi incisivi labii superioris / incisive muscles of superior lip
: small bundles of muscle fibers, one arising from the incisive fossa of
the maxilla on each side and passing laterally to the angle of the mouth.
musculus incisurae terminalis [Santorini] / musculus incisurae helicis
: an inconstant muscular slip continuing forward from the m. tragicus to
bridge the incisure of the cartilaginous meatus.
musculi auriculares / auricular muscles : the intrinsic auricular
muscles that extend from one part of the auricle to another, including
musculus antitragicus / antitragicus muscle : origin, outer part
of antitragus; insertion, caudate process of helix and anthelix; innervation,
temporal and posterior auricular.
musculus auricularis anterior / anterior auricular muscle : origin,
superficial temporal fascia; insertion, cartilage of ear; innervation,
facial; action, draws the auricle forward.
musculus auricularis superior / superior auricular muscle : origin,
galea aponeurotica; insertion, cartilage of ear; innervation, facial; action,
musculus tragicus / muscle of tragus : a short, flattened vertical
band on the lateral surface of the tragus, innervated by the auriculotemporal
and posterior auricular nerves.
musculus transversus auriculae or auricularis / transverse muscle of
auricle : origin, cranial surface of auricle; insertion, circumference
of auricle; innervation, posterior auricular; action, retracts helix.
musculus obliquus auriculae / musculus obliquus auricularis / oblique
muscle of auricle : origin, cranial surface of concha; insertion, cranial
surface of auricle above concha; innervation, temporal and posterior auricular
(branches of facial).
musculus helicis major / helicis major muscle : origin, spine of
helix; insertion, anterior border of helix; innervation, auriculotemporal
and posterior auricular (branches of facial); action, tenses skin of auditory
musculus helicis minor / helicis minor muscle : origin, anterior
rim of helix; insertion, concha; innervation, temporal, posterior auricular.
musculus buccinator / buccinator muscle : origin, buccinator ridge
of mandible, alveolar process of maxilla, pterygomandibular ligament; insertion,
orbicularis oris at angle of mouth; innervation, buccal branch of facial;
action, compresses cheek and retracts angle of the mouth.
musculus corrugator supercilii / Koyter's muscle : origin, medial
end of superciliary arch; insertion, skin of eyebrow; innervation, facial;
action, draws eyebrow downward and medially
musculus epicranius / epicranial muscle : a name given the muscular
covering of the scalp, including
musculus occipitofrontalis / occipitofrontal muscle : origin, VENTER
FRONTALIS—galea aponeurotica, VENTER OCCIPITALIS (musculus occipitalis)—
highest nuchal line of occipital bone; insertion, VENTER FRONTALIS (musculus
frontalis)—skin of eyebrows and root of nose, VENTER OCCIPITALIS—galea
aponeurotica; innervation, VENTER FRONTALIS—temporal branch of facial,
VENTER OCCIPITALIS—posterior auricular branch of facial; action, VENTER
FRONTALIS—raises eyebrows, VENTER OCCIPITALIS—draws scalp posteriorly.
musculus levator labii superioris alaeque nasi / levator muscle of upper
lip and ala of nose : origin, nasal process of maxilla; insertion,
cartilage and skin of ala nasi, and upper lip; innervation, infraorbital
branch of facial; action, raises upper lip and dilates nostril.
musculus levator palpebrae superioris / levator muscle of upper eyelid
: origin, upper border of optic foramen; insertion, tarsal plate and skin
of upper eyelid; innervation, oculomotor; action, raises upper lid.
musculus mentalis : origin, incisive fossa of mandible; insertion,
skin of chin; innervation, facial; action, wrinkles skin of chin.
musculus nasalis / nasal muscle : origin, maxilla; insertion, PARS
ALARIS—ala of nose, PARS TRANSVERSA—by aponeurotic expansion with fellow
of opposite side; innervation, facial; action, PARS ALARIS (musculus
dilator naris)—aids in widening nostril, PARS TRANSVERSA (musculus
compressor naris)—depresses cartilage of nose.
musculus orbicularis oris / orbicular muscle of mouth, comprising
a pars labialis, fibers restricted to the lips, and a pars marginalis,
fibers blending with those of adjacent muscles; innervation, facial; action,
closes and protrudes lips.
musculus risorius / risorius muscle : origin, fascia over masseter;
insertion, skin at angle of mouth; innervation, buccal branch of facial;
action, draws angle of mouth laterally.
musculus tarsalis superior / superior tarsal muscle : origin, m.
levator palpebrae superioris; insertion, tarsal plate of upper eyelid;
innervation, sympathetic; action, widens palpebral fissure.
musculus transversus menti / transverse muscle of chin : superficial
fibers of the depressor anguli oris which turn back and cross to the opposite
musculus procerus / procerus muscle : origin, fascia over nasal
bone; insertion, skin of forehead; innervation, facial; action, draws medial
angle of eyebrows down.
musculus zygomaticus (major) / greater zygomatic muscle : origin,
zygomatic bone in front of temporal process; insertion, angle of mouth;
innervation, facial; action, draws angle of mouth backward and upward.
musculus zygomaticus minor / lesser zygomatic muscle : origin, zygomatic
bone near maxillary suture; insertion, orbicularis oris and levator labii
superioris; innervation, facial; action, draws upper lip upward and laterally
musculus orbicularis oculi / orbicular muscle of eye : the oval
sphincter muscle surrounding the eyelids, consisting of 3 parts: origin,
PARS ORBITALIS—medial margin of orbit, including frontal process of maxilla,
PARS PALPEBRALIS—medial canthus, medial palpebral ligament, PARS LACRIMALIS—posterior
lacrimal crest; insertion, PARS ORBITALIS—near origin after encircling
orbit, PARS PALPEBRALIS—fibers intertwine to form lateral palpebral raphe,
PARS LACRIMALIS—lateral palpebral raphe, upper and lower tarsi; innervation,
facial; action, closes eyelids, wrinkles forehead, compresses lacrimal
musculi masticatorii / masticatory muscles / muscles of mastication
: a group of muscles responsible for the movement of the jaws during mastication,
including the masseter, temporal, and medial and lateral pterygoid muscles
musculus temporalis / temporal muscle : origin, temporal fossa and
fascia; insertion, coronoid process of mandible; innervation, mandibular;
action, closes jaws.
musculus masseter / masseter muscle : origin, PARS SUPERFICIALIS—zygomatic
process of maxilla and inferior border of zygomatic arch, PARS PROFUNDA—inferior
border and medial surface of zygomatic arch; insertion, PARS SUPERFICIALIS—angle
and ramus of mandible, PARS PROFUNDA—superior half of ramus and lateral
surface of coronoid process of mandible; innervation, mandibular division
of trigeminal; action, raises mandible, closes jaws.
musculus pterygoideus lateralis / lateral pterygoid muscle (2 heads):
origin, SUPERIOR HEAD—lateral surface of greater wing of sphenoid and infratemporal
crest; INFERIOR HEAD—lateral surface of lateral pterygoid plate; insertion,
neck of condyle of mandible, temporomandibular joint capsule; innervation,
mandibular division of trigeminal; action, protrudes mandible, opens jaws,
moves mandible from side to side.
musculus pterygoideus medialis / medial pterygoid muscle : origin,
lateral pterygoid plate, tuberosity of maxilla; insertion, medial surface
of ramus and angle of mandible; innervation, mandibular division of trigeminal;
action, closes jaws.
intraocular muscles : the intrinsic muscles of the eyeball.
iridic muscles : the muscles controlling the iris
musculus ciliaris / ciliary muscle : origin, scleral spur; insertion,
outer layers of choroid and ciliary processes; innervation, oculomotor,
parasympathetic; action, affects shape of lens in visual accommodation.
Rouget's muscle : the circular portion of the ciliary muscle.
musculus dilatator pupillae / dilator pupillae muscle : a name given
fibers extending radially from the sphincter pupillae to the ciliary margin;
innervation, sympathetic; action, dilates iris.
musculus sphincter pupillae / sphincter muscle of pupil : circular
fibers of the iris, innervated by the ciliary nerves (parasympathetic),
and acting to contract the pupil.
musculi externi bulbi oculi / extraocular
/ musculi bulbi / muscles of eye / ocular muscles : the 6 voluntary
muscles that move the eyeball, including the superior, inferior, middle,
and lateral recti, and the superior and inferior oblique muscles
musculus obliquus inferior bulbi or oculi / inferior oblique muscle
of eyeball : origin, orbital plate of maxilla; insertion, sclera; innervation,
oculomotor; action, rotates eyeball upward and outward.
musculus obliquus superior bulbi or oculi / superior oblique muscle
of eyeball : origin, lesser wing of sphenoid above optic foramen; insertion,
sclera; innervation, trochlear; action, rotates eyeball downward and outward.
musculus rectus inferior bulbi or oculi / inferior rectus muscle
: origin, annulus tendineus communis; insertion, under side of sclera;
innervation, oculomotor; action, adducts, rotates eyeball downward and
musculus rectus lateralis bulbi or oculi / lateral rectus muscle
: origin, annulus tendineus communis; insertion, lateral side of sclera;
innervation, abducens; action, abducts eyeball.
musculus rectus medialis bulbi or oculi / medial rectus muscle :
origin, annulus tendineus communis; insertion, medial side of sclera; innervation,
oculomotor; action, adducts eyeball.
musculus rectus superior bulbi / superior rectus muscle : origin,
annulus tendineus communis; insertion, upper aspect of sclera; innervation,
oculomotor; action, adducts, rotates eyeball upward and medially.
intraauricular muscles / musculi ossiculorum auditoriorum / muscles
of auditory ossicles : the 2 muscles of the middle ear :
musculus stapedius / stapedius muscle : origin, interior of pyramid
of tympanic cavity; insertion, posterior surface of neck of stapes; innervation,
stapedial branch of facial; action, dampens stapedial movement.
musculus tensor tympani / tensor muscle of tympanic membrane : origin,
cartilaginous portion of auditory tube; insertion, manubrium of malleus;
innervation, mandibular; action, tenses tympanic membrane.
musculi linguae / musculi linguales / lingual muscles / muscles of tongue
: the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles that move the tongue
intrinsic tongue muscles
musculus longitudinalis inferior linguae / inferior longitudinal muscle
of tongue : origin, inferior surface of tongue at base; insertion,
tip of tongue; innervation, hypoglossal; action, changes shape of tongue
in mastication and deglutition.
musculus longitudinalis superior linguae / superior longitudinal muscle
of tongue : origin, submucosa and septum of tongue; insertion, margins
of tongue; innervation, hypoglossal; action, changes shape of tongue in
mastication and deglutition.
musculus verticalis linguae / vertical muscle of tongue : origin,
dorsal fascia of tongue; insertion, sides and base of tongue; innervation,
hypoglossal; action, changes shape of tongue in mastication and deglutition.
musculus transversus linguae / transverse muscle of tongue : origin,
median septum of tongue; insertion, dorsum and margins of tongue; innervation,
hypoglossal; action, changes shape of tongue in mastication and deglutition.
extrinsic tongue muscles
musculus geniohyoideus / geniohyoid muscle : origin, mental spine
of mandible; insertion, body of hyoid bone; innervation, a branch of first
cervical nerve through hypoglossal; action, elevates, draws hyoid forward.
musculus styloglossus / styloglossus muscle : origin, styloid process;
insertion, margin of tongue; innervation, hypoglossal; action, raises and
musculus hyoglossus / hyoglossal muscle : origin, body and greater
cornu of hyoid bone; insertion, side of tongue; innervation, hypoglossal;
action, depresses and retracts tongue.
musculi colli / cervical muscles / musculi cervicis : the muscles
of the neck, including the sternocleidomastoid and the longus colli, and
the suprahyoid, infrahyoid, and scalene muscles
posterior neck muscles
musculus sternocleidomastoideus / sternocleidomastoid muscle (2
heads): origin, STERNAL HEAD—manubrium sterni, CLAVICULAR HEAD—clavicle;
insertion, mastoid process and superior nuchal line of occipital bone;
innervation, accessory nerve and cervical plexus; action, flexes vertebral
column, rotates head.
musculus semispinalis / semispinal muscle : a muscle composed of
fibers extending obliquely from the transverse processes of the vertebrae
to the spine, except for the semispinalis capitis; it includes the m. semispinalis
capitis, m. semispinalis cervicis, and m. semispinalis thoracis.
musculus semispinalis capitis / semispinal muscles of head : origin,
transverse processes of five or six upper thoracic and four lower cervical
vertebrae; insertion, occipital bone; innervation, suboccipital, greater
occipital, and branches of cervical; action, extends head.
musculus semispinalis cervicis / semispinal muscles of neck : origin,
transverse processes of five or six upper thoracic vertebrae; insertion,
spinous processes of second to fifth cervical vertebrae; innervation, branches
of cervical; action, extends, rotates vertebral column.
musculus semispinalis dorsi or thoracis / semispinal muscles of thorax
: origin, transverse processes of sixth to tenth thoracic vertebrae; insertion,
spinous processes of 2 lower cervical and four upper thoracic vertebrae;
innervation, spinal nerves; action, extends, rotates vertebral column.
musculus longissimus / longissimus muscle : the largest element
of the m. erector spinae, which includes the m. longissimus capitis, m.
longissimus cervicis, and m. longissimus thoracis.
musculus longisimus capitis / longissimus muscle of head : origin,
transverse processes of four or five upper thoracic vertebrae, articular
processes of three or four lower cervical vertebrae; insertion, mastoid
process of temporal bone; innervation, branches of cervical; action, draws
head backward, rotates head.
musculus longissimus cervicis or colli / longissimus muscle of neck
: origin, transverse processes of four or five upper thoracic vertebrae;
insertion, transverse processes of second to sixth cervical vertebrae;
innervation, lower cervical and upper thoracic; action, extends cervical
musculus longissimus dorsi or thoracis / longissimus muscle of thorax
: origin, transverse and articular processes of lumbar vertebrae and thoracolumbar
fascia; insertion, transverse processes of all thoracic vertebrae, 9 or
10 lower ribs; innervation, lumbar and thoracic; action, extends thoracic
musculi ossis hyoidei / muscles of the hyoid bone
musculi suprahyoidei / suprahyoid muscles : the muscles that attach
the hyoid bone to the skull, including :
musculus digastricus / digastric muscle : origin, VENTER ANTERIOR—digastric
fossa on deep surface of inferior border of mandible near symphysis, VENTER
POSTERIOR—mastoid notch of temporal bone; insertion, intermediate tendon
on hyoid bone; innervation, VENTER ANTERIOR—mylohyoid, VENTER POSTERIOR—digastric
branch of facial; action, elevates hyoid bone, lowers jaw.
musculus genioglossus / genioglossus muscle : origin, mental spine
of mandible; insertion, hyoid bone and inferior surface of tongue; innervation,
hypoglossal; action, protrudes and depresses tongue.
musculus mylohyoideus / mylohyoid muscle : origin, mylohyoid line
of mandible; insertion, body of hyoid bone and median raphe; innervation,
mylohyoid branch of inferior alveolar; action, elevates hyoid bone, supports
floor of mouth.
musculus stylohyoideus / stylohyoid muscle : origin, styloid process;
insertion, body of hyoid bone; innervation, facial; action, draws hyoid
and tongue superiorly and posteriorly.
musculi infrahyoidei / infrahyoid muscles : the muscles that anchor
the hyoid bone to the sternum, clavicle, and scapula, including ...
musculus sternohyoideus / sternohyoid muscle : origin, manubrium
sterni and clavicle; insertion, body of hyoid bone; innervation, upper
ansa cervicalis; action, depresses hyoid bone and larynx.
cleidohyoid muscle : a slip of muscle sometimes seen augmenting
the sternohyoid muscle, extending from the hyoid bone to the clavicle.
musculus thyrohyoideus / thyrohyoid muscle : origin, lamina of thyroid
cartilage; insertion, greater cornu of hyoid bone; innervation, first cervical;
action, raises and changes form of larynx.
musculus omohyoideus / omohyoid muscle , comprising 2 bellies (superior
and inferior) connected by a central tendon that is bound to the clavicle
by a fibrous expansion of the cervical fascia; origin, superior border
of scapula; insertion, lateral border of hyoid bone; innervation, upper
cervical through ansa cervicalis; action, depresses hyoid bone.
musculus levator glandulae thyroideae / levator muscle of thyroid gland
: an inconstant muscle originating on the isthmus or pyramid of the thyroid
gland and inserting on the body of the hyoid bone.
pectoral girdle muscles
anterior pectoral girdle muscles
musculus serratus anterior / anterior
serratus muscle : origin, eight or nine upper ribs; insertion, medial
border of scapula; innervation, long thoracic; action, draws scapula forward;
rotates scapula to raise shoulder in abduction of arm.
musculus pectoralis minor / smaller
pectoral muscle : origin, third, fourth, and fifth ribs; insertion,
coracoid process of scapula; innervation, lateral and medial pectoral;
action, draws shoulder forward and downward, raises third, fourth, and
fifth ribs in forced inspiration.
musculus subclavius / subclavius
muscle : origin, first rib and its cartilage; insertion, lower surface
of clavicle; innervation, fifth and sixth cervical; action, depresses lateral
end of clavicle.
posterior pectoral girdle muscles
musculus trapezius / trapezius muscle
: origin, occipital bone, ligamentum nuchae, spinous processes of seventh
cervical and all thoracic vertebrae; insertion, clavicle, acromion, spine
of scapula; innervation, accessory nerve and cervical plexus; action, rotates
scapula to raise shoulder in abduction of arm, draws scapula backward.
musculus levator scapulae / levator
muscle of scapula : origin, transverse processes of four upper cervical
vertebrae; insertion, medial border of scapula; innervation, third and
fourth cervical; action, raises scapula.
musculus rhomboideus / rhomboid muscle
musculus rhomboideus major / greater
rhomboid muscle : origin, spinous processes of second, third, fourth,
and fifth thoracic vertebrae; insertion, medial margin of scapula; innervation,
dorsal scapular; action, retracts, elevates scapula.
musculus rhomboideus minor / lesser
rhomboid muscle : origin, spinous processes of seventh cervical to
first thoracic vertebrae, lower part of ligamentum nuchae; insertion, medial
margin of scapula at root of the spine; innervation, dorsal scapular; action,
adducts, elevates scapula.
musculi extremitatis or membri superioris / muscles of superior limb
: the muscles acting on the arm, forearm, and hand.
musculus teres major / teres major muscle : origin, inferior angle
of scapula; insertion, crest of intertubercular sulcus of humerus; innervation,
lower subscapular; action, adducts, extends, rotates arm medially.
musculus teres minor / teres minor muscle : origin, lateral margin
of scapula; insertion, greater tuberosity of humerus; innervation, axillary;
action, rotates arm laterally.
musculus coracobrachialis / coracobrachial muscle : origin, coracoid
process of scapula; insertion, medial surface of shaft of humerus; innervation,
musculocutaneous; action, flexes, adducts arm.
musculus pectoralis major / greater pectoral muscle : origin, clavicle,
sternum, six upper ribs, aponeurosis of obliquus externus abdominis. These
origins are reflected in the subdivision of the muscle into clavicular,
sternocostal, and abdominal parts; insertion, crest of intertubercular
groove of humerus; innervation, medial and lateral pectoral; action, adducts,
flexes, rotates arm medially.
Sibson's groove : a furrow sometimes seen at the lower border of
the pectoralis major muscle.
musculus latissimus dorsi
: origin, spines of lower thoracic vertebrae, lumbar and sacral vertebrae
through thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, lower ribs, inferior angle of
scapula; insertion, floor of intertubercular sulcus of humerus; innervation,
thoracodorsal; action, adducts, extends, and rotates humerus medially.
Used in dynamic cardiomyoplasty
Chassaignac's axillary muscle : an occasional muscle bundle extending
from the lower edge of the latissimus dorsi across the hollow of the axilla
to the brachial fascia or to the lower border of the pectoralis minor
axillary arch : a muscular slip occasionally arising from the cranial
border of the latissimus dorsi muscle, crossing the axilla ventral to the
axillary vessels and nerves, and joining the under surface of the tendon
of the pectoralis major, the coracobrachialis, or the fascia of the biceps
musculus biceps brachii / biceps muscle of arm (2 heads) : origin,
CAPUT LONGUM—upper border of glenoid cavity, CAPUT BREVE—apex of coracoid
process; insertion, radial tuberosity and fascia of forearm; innervation,
musculocutaneous; action, flexes forearm, supinates hand.
musculus brachialis / brachial muscle : origin, anterior surface
of humerus; insertion, coronoid process of ulna; innervation, radial, musculocutaneous;
action, flexes forearm.
musculus brachioradialis / brachioradial muscle : origin, lateral
supracondylar ridge of humerus; insertion, lower end of radius; innervation,
radial; action, flexes forearm.
musculus triceps brachii / triceps muscle of arm (3 heads) : origin,
CAPUT LONGUM—infraglenoid tubercle of scapula, CAPUT LATERALE—posterior
surface of humerus, lateral border of humerus, lateral intermuscular septum,
CAPUT MEDIALE—posterior surface of humerus below radial groove, medial
border of humerus, medial intermuscular septa; insertion, olecranon of
ulna; innervation, radial; action, extends forearm, long head adducts and
musculus pronator teres (2 heads): origin, CAPUT HUMERALE—medial
epicondyle of humerus, CAPUT ULNARE— coronoid process of ulna; insertion,
lateral surface of radius; innervation, median; action, pronates hand and
musculus pronator quadratus : origin, anterior surface and border
of distal third or fourth of ulna; insertion, anterior surface and border
of distal fourth of shaft of radius; innervation, anterior interosseous;
action, pronates hand.
musculus flexor carpi radialis / radial flexor muscle of wrist :
origin, medial epicondyle of humerus; insertion, base of second metacarpal;
innervation, median; action, flexes and abducts wrist joint.
musculus flexor carpi ulnaris / ulnar flexor muscle of wrist (2
heads): origin, CAPUT HUMERALE—medial epicondyle of humerus, CAPUT ULNARE—olecranon,
ulna, intermuscular septum; insertion, pisiform, hook of hamate, proximal
end of fifth metacarpal; innervation, ulnar; action, flexes and adducts
musculus flexor digiti minimi or quinti brevis manus / short flexor
muscle of little finger : origin, hook of hamate bone, transverse carpal
ligament; insertion, medial side of proximal phalanx of little finger;
innervation, ulnar; action, flexes little finger.
musculus flexor digitorum profundus / deep flexor muscle of fingers
: origin, shaft of ulna, coronoid process; insertion, distal phalanges
of fingers; innervation, ulnar and anterior interosseous; action, flexes
musculus flexor digitorum superficialis or sublimis / superficial flexor
muscle of fingers (2 heads): origin, CAPUT HUMEROULNARE—medial epicondyle
of humerus, coronoid process of ulna, CAPUT RADIALE— oblique line of radius,
anterior border; insertion, middle phalanges of fingers; innervation, median;
action, flexes middle phalanges.
musculus flexor pollicis longus / long flexor muscle of thumb :
origin, anterior surface of radius and coronoid process of ulna; insertion,
base of distal phalanx of thumb; innervation, anterior interosseous; action,
musculus extensor carpi radialis brevis / short radial extensor muscle
of wrist : origin, lateral epicondyle of humerus, insertion, base of
third metacarpal bone; innervation, radial; action, extends and abducts
musculus extensor carpi radialis longus / long radial extensor muscle
of wrist : origin, lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus; insertion,
base of second metacarpal bone; innervation, radial; action, extends and
abducts wrist joint.
musculus extensor carpi ulnaris / ulnar extensor muscle of wrist
(2 heads): origin, CAPUT HUMERALE—lateral epicondyle of humerus, CAPUT
ULNARE—dorsal border of ulna; insertion, base of fifth metacarpal bone;
innervation, deep radial; action, extends and adducts wrist joint.
musculus extensor digiti minimi or quinti proprius / extensor muscle
of little finger : origin, common extensor tendon; insertion, tendon
of extensor digitorum to little finger; innervation, deep radial; action,
extends little finger.
musculus extensor digitorum (communis) / extensor muscle of fingers
: origin, lateral epicondyle of humerus; insertion, common extensor tendon
of each finger; innervation, posterior interosseus; action, extends wrist
joint and phalanges.
musculus extensor pollicis brevis / short extensor muscle of thumb
: origin, dorsal surface of radius and interosseous membrane; insertion,
dorsal surface of proximal phalanx of thumb; innervation, posterior interosseous;
action, extends thumb.
musculus extensor pollicis longus / long extensor muscle of thumb
: origin, dorsal surface of ulna and interosseous membrane; insertion,
dorsal surface of distal phalanx of thumb; innervation, posterior interosseous;
action, extends, abducts thumb.
musculus extensor indicis (proprius) / extensor muscle of index finger
: origin, dorsal surface of body of ulna, interosseous membrane; insertion,
common extensor tendon of index finger; innervation, posterior interosseous;
action, extends index finger.
thenar muscles : the abductor and flexor muscles of the thumb
musculus abductor pollicis brevis / short abductor muscle of thumb
: origin, scaphoid, ridge of trapezium, transverse carpal ligament; insertion,
lateral surface of base of proximal phalanx of thumb; innervation, median;
action, abducts thumb.
musculus abductor pollicis longus / long abductor muscle of thumb
: origin, posterior surfaces of radius and ulna; insertion, radial side
of base of first metacarpal bone; innervation, posterior interosseous;
action, abducts, extends thumb.
musculus flexor pollicis brevis / short flexor muscle of thumb :
origin, flexor retinaculum, ridge of trapezium; insertion, base of proximal
phalanx of thumb; innervation, median, ulnar; action, flexes and adducts
hypothenar muscles : the intrinsic muscles of the little finger;
flexing, abducting, and opposing it, and comprising the palmaris brevis,
abductor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi brevis, and opponens digiti
musculus abductor digiti minimi or quinti manus / abductor muscle of
little finger : origin, pisiform bone, flexor carpi ulnaris tendon;
insertion, medial surface of base of proximal phalanx of little finger;
innervation, ulnar; action, abducts little finger.
musculus adductor pollicis / adductor muscle of thumb (2 heads):
origin, CAPUT OBLIQUUM—sheath of flexor carpi radialis, anterior carpal
ligament, capitate bone, and bases of second and third metacarpals, CAPUT
TRANSVERSUM—lower two-thirds of anterior surface of third metacarpal; insertion,
medial surface of base of proximal phalanx of thumb; innervation, ulnar;
action, adducts, opposes thumb.
musculi interossei dorsales manus / dorsal interosseous muscles of hand
(4): origin, by two heads from adjacent sides of metacarpal bones; insertion,
extensor tendons of second, third, and fourth fingers; innervation, ulnar;
action, abduct, flex proximal phalanges.
musculi interossei palmares or volares / palmar interosseous muscles
(3): origin, sides of second, fourth, and fifth metacarpal bones; insertion,
extensor tendons of second, fourth, and fifth fingers; innervation, ulnar;
action, adduct, flex proximal phalanges, extend middle and distal phalanges.
musculus opponens digiti minimi or quinti / opposing muscle of little
finger : origin, hook of hamate bone, transverse carpal ligament; insertion,
medial aspect of fifth metacarpal; innervation, eighth cervical through
ulnar; action, rotates, abducts, and flexes fifth metacarpal.
musculus opponens pollicis / opposing muscle of thumb : origin,
ridge of trapezium, flexor retinaculum; insertion, radial side of first
metacarpal; innervation, sixth and seventh cervical through median; action,
flexes and opposes thumb.
musculus palmaris brevis / short palmar muscle : origin, palmar
aponeurosis; insertion, skin of medial border of hand; innervation, ulnar;
action, assists in deepening hollow of palm.
musculi lumbricales manus / lumbrical muscles of hand : origin,
tendons of flexor digitorum profundus; insertion, extensor tendons of four
lateral fingers; innervation, median and ulnar; action, flex metacarpophalangeal
joint and extend middle and distal phalanges.
Functional posture of the hand :
hook grip : that usually assumed when grasping handles or straps
or suspending or pulling upon an object: the fingers are flexed toward
the palm, to a degree depending on the size of the grasped object.
power grip : that usually assumed when holding a hammer or piece
of rope: the fingers are flexed around an object, with counter pressure
from the thumb, which is positioned to bring either its pad or its medial
border firmly against the held object.
precision grip : that usually assumed when holding a pen or pencil:
the object is grasped between the tips of the thumb and fingers (most often
the index, with the middle often involved).
inspiratory muscles : the muscles
that act during inspiration, such as the diaphragm, and the intercostal
and pectoral muscles.
thoracic or respiratory diaphragm / phren
/ midriff / diaphragmatic muscle / diaphragma thoraco-abdominale :
the musculomembranous partition separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities,
and serving as a major thoracic muscle
hiatus aorticus / aortic hiatus
: the opening in the diaphragm through which the aorta and thoracic duct
hiatus oesophageus / esophageal
hiatus : the opening in the diaphragm for the passage of the esophagus
and the vagus nerves
hiatus pleuroperitonealis / foramen
of Bochdalek : a posterolateral opening in the fetal diaphragm; its
failure to close leaves a congenital posterolateral defect which may become
a site for congenital diaphragmatic hernia
trefoil tendon / centrum tendineum [diaphragmatis]
/ central tendon of diaphragm / cordiform ligament of diaphragm, and phrenic
center : the cloverleaf-shaped aponeurosis, immediately below the pericardium,
which the diaphragmatic fibers converge to insert
musculi intercostales externi / external intercostal muscles (11
on each side): origin, inferior border of rib; insertion, superior border
of rib below; innervation, intercostal; action, draw ribs together in respiration
and expulsive movements.
musculi intercostales interni / internal intercostal muscles (11
on each side): origin, inferior border of rib and costal cartilage; insertion,
superior border of rib and costal cartilage below; innervation, intercostal;
action, draw ribs together in respiration and expulsive movements.
musculi intercostales intimi / innermost intercostal muscles : the
layer of muscle fibers separated from the internal intercostal muscles
by the intercostal nerves.
musculi levatores costarum / levator muscles of ribs (12 on each
side): originating from the transverse processes of the seventh cervical
and first to eleventh thoracic vertebrae and inserting medial to the angle
of a lower rib (see musculi levatores costarum breves and musculi levatores
costarum longi); innervated by intercostal nerves and aiding in elevation
of the ribs in respiration.
musculi levatores costarum breves / short levator muscles of ribs
: the levatores costarum muscles of each side that insert medial to the
angle of the rib next below the vertebra of origin.
musculi levatores costarum longi / long levator muscles of ribs
: the lower levatores costarum muscles of each side, which have fascicles
extending down to the second rib below the vertebra of origin.
musculi abdominis : the muscles of the abdomen.
musculus obliquus externus abdominis / external
oblique muscle of abdomen ; origin, lower eight ribs at costal cartilages;
insertion, crest of ilium, linea alba through rectus sheath; innervation,
lower intercostal; action, flexes and rotates vertebral column, compresses
anulus inguinalis subcutaneus or superficialis / superficial
or external inguinal ring : an opening in the aponeurosis of the external
oblique muscle for the spermatic cord or for the round ligament. Located
at pubic tubercle. Occurs just above inguinal ligament
crus mediale anuli inguinalis superficialis / medial crus of superficial
inguinal ring / superior crus of subcutaneous inguinal ring / crus superius
anuli inguinalis subcutanei / anterior or internal crus of anterior inguinal
ring / anterior or internal inguinal ligament : the part of the superficial
inguinal ring that is attached to the symphysis and that blends with the
fundiform ligament of the penis
crus laterale anuli inguinalis superficialis / lateral crus of superficial
inguinal ring / crus inferius annuli inguinalis subcutanei / external or
posterior crus of anterior inguinal ring : the part of the superficial
inguinal ring that blends with the inguinal ligament as it goes to the
fibrae intercrurales / intercrural fibers / Cooper's or Scarpa's fascia
/ Todd's process / collateral fibers of Winslow : fibers joining the
medial and lateral crura of the superficial inguinal ring
Buck's fascia : the deep fascia of the penis, being continuous with
Colles' fascia of the perineum and with Scarpa's fascia of the abdominal
musculus obliquus internus abdominis / internal
oblique muscle of abdomen : origin, inguinal ligament, iliac crest,
thoracolumbar fascia; insertion, inferior 3 or 4 costal cartilages, linea
alba, conjoined tendon to pubis; innervation, lower intercostal; action,
flexes and rotates vertebral column, compresses abdominal viscera.
cremasteric fascia / fascia cremasterica / Cooper's
fascia / intercolumnar fascia : the thin covering of the spermatic
cord formed by the investing fascia of the cremasteric muscle; it is adjacent
to the external surface of the internal spermatic fascia
musculus transversus abdominis / transverse
abdominal muscle : origin, cartilages of 6 lower ribs, thoracolumbar
fascia, iliac crest, inguinal ligament; insertion, linea alba through rectus
sheath, conjoined tendon to pubis; innervation, lower intercostals, iliohypogastric,
ilioinguinal; action, compresses abdominal viscera.
musculus rectus abdominis
: origin, pubis; insertion, xiphoid process, cartilages of fifth, sixth,
and seventh ribs; innervation, branches of lower thoracic; action, flexes
lumbar vertebrae, supports abdomen.
rectoabdominal fascia / vagina musculi recti abdominis / rectus sheath
: sheath of rectus abdominis muscle: a sheath formed by the aponeuroses
of other abdominal muscles, within which the rectus abdominis can move
linea alba (abdominis) / white line : the tendinous median line
on the anterior abdominal wall between the two rectus muscles, formed by
the decussating fibers of the aponeuroses of the three flat abdominal muscles.
anulus umbilicalis / umbilical canal or ring : the aperture in the
abdominal wall through which the umbilical cord communicates with the fetus.
After birth it is felt for some time as a distinct fibrous ring surrounding
the umbilicus; these fibers later shrink progressively
Scarpa's fascia : the deep, membranous
layer of subcutaneous abdominal fascia.
Richet's fascia : a fold of extraperitoneal
fascia enveloping the obliterated umbilical vein.
fossa iliacosubfascialis / Biesiadecki's iliacosubfascial fossa
: an inconstant depression on the inner surface of the abdomen between
the psoas muscle and the crest of the ilium
fossa iliopectinea / iliopectineal fossa / lesser fossa of Scarpa
: a depression between the iliopsoas and pectineus muscles in the center
of the femoral triangle
fascia transversalis / endoabdominal,
internal abdominal or transverse fascia : part of the inner investing
layer of the abdominal wall, continuous with the fascia of the other side
behind the rectus abdominis and
the rectus sheath, and continuous also with the diaphragmatic fascia, the
iliac fascia, and the parietal pelvic fascia
Hesselbach's ligamentum interfoveolare / interfoveolar
ligament : a thickening in the transversalis fascia on the medial side
of the deep inguinal ring; it is connected above to the transversus muscle
and below to the inguinal ligament.
anulus inguinalis profundus / deep
or internal abdominal or inguinal ring / anulus abdominalis abdominis /
anulus inguinalis abdominalis : an aperture in the fascia transversalis
for the spermatic cord or for the round ligament. Landmark: middle of Malgaignes's
tractus iliopubicus / iliopubic tract
/ deep crural arch : a thickened band of tissue that strengthens the
lower part of the deep inguinal ring and forms the base of the internal
fascia spermatica interna / internal
spermatic fascia : the thin innermost covering of the spermatic cord,
derived from the transversalis fascia of the abdominal wall
Bogros' retroinguinal space
: a region bounded by the peritoneum above and the fascia transversalis
below, in which the lower part of the external iliac artery can be found
without cutting the peritoneum
subperitoneal or extraperitoneal fascia / fascia extraperitonealis or
subperitonealis / extraperitoneal tissue : the thin layer of areolar
connective tissue separating the parietal peritoneum from the abdominal
fusion fascia : a double connective tissue band derived from the
fusion of closely apposed surfaces of peritoneum as a result of degeneration
of the lubricating serous layer between them; such fasciae are seen in
the pelvic and abdominal cavities where crowding of organs occurs
thoracic fascia / external intercostal fascia / fascia thoracica
: the deep fascia that covers the outside of the thoracic cavity
fascia lumbodorsalis or thoracolumbalis / lumbodorsal or thoracolumbar
fascia : the fascia of the back that attaches medially to the spinous
processes of the vertebral column for its entire length and blends laterally
with the aponeurosis of the transversus abdominis muscle; inferiorly it
attaches to the iliac crest and the sacrum
Horizontal section of the abdominal wall at the level of the right
inguinal canal :
Seen from the internal abdomne, the peritoneal surface of the inguinal
wall presents fold converging from the pelvis towards the navel :
the median fold is the remnant of the urachus
laterally there is the fold of the remnant of the umbilical artery
more laterally there is the epigastric vessel fold
Such folds border bilaterally 3 foveae :
fossa or fovea inguinalis lateralis / external
or lateral inguinal fovea or fossa : the depression on the inside of
the anterior abdominal wall lateral to the lateral umbilical fold, corresponding
to the internal inguinal ring and placed
laterally to the fold of epigastric vessels, through which occur the external
oblique inguinal hernias.
fossa or fovea inguinalis media / middle
inguinal fovea or fossa, placed between epigastric (lateral) vessels
and the remnant of the umbilical artery (medial), corresponding to Hesselbach's
trigonum inguinale / inguinal triangle
: the triangular area on the anteroinferior abdominal wall bounded by the
abdominis muscle, the inguinal ligament,
and the inferior epigastric vessels: the site in which a
fossa or fovea inguinalis medialis / internal
or medial inguinal fovea or fossa : the depression on the inside of
the anterior abdominal wall between the medial and lateral umbilical folds,
placed between the remnant of the urachus (medial) and the remnant of the
umbilical artery (lateral), crossed by internal oblique inguinal hernias.
The inner foveola is reenforced by the
conjoined tendon of transverse
and internal oblique muscle and the rectus muscle; that explains the relative
rarity of the internal
oblique inguinal hernia
epigastric or urachal fossa : a depression on the inner surface
of the anterior abdominal wall, between the urachus and the hypogastric
trigonum femorale / femoral triangle / Scarpa's
triangle : a triangular subfascial area bounded superiorly by the inguinal
ligament, laterally by the medial border of the sartorius
muscle, and medially by the medial border of the adductor
trigonum femoris / femoral triangle : the surface area of the thigh
overlying the trigonum femorale
anulus femoralis / femoral ring / crural
or femoral fossa / inferior digital fossa / crural or femoral fovea / hiatus
femoralis : the abdominal opening of the femoral canal, normally closed
by the crural septum and peritoneum
Cloquet's femoral septum / septum
femorale [Cloqueti] : the thin fibrous membrane that helps to close
the anulus femoralis; it is derived from the fascia transversalis, is perforated
for the passage of lymphatic vessels, and is embedded in fat.
fallopian ligamentum inguinale [Pouparti] / Poupart's inguinal
ligament / inguinal arch / arcus inguinalis : a fibrous band running
from the anterior superior spine of the ilium to the spine of the pubis.
Its projection on skin is named Malgaignes's
line and separates the crural region (inferiorly) form the femoral
lacuna of muscles / muscular compartment
or lacuna / lacuna musculorum / iliac canal : a compartment beneath
the inguinal ligament for the passage of the iliopsoas muscle and femoral
nerve, separated from the lacuna vasorum by the iliopectineal arch
vascular compartment or lacuna / lacuna
vasorum : a space for the passage of the femoral vessels into the thigh,
separated from the lacuna musculorum by the iliopectineal arch
Gimbernat's lacunar ligament / ligamentum
lacunare : a small triangular membrane with its base just medial to
the femoral ring; one side is attached to the inguinal ligament and the
other to the pectineal line of the pubis
triangular fascia of Quain / ligamentum inguinale reflexum [Collesi]
/ Colles' reflex inguinal ligament
: a triangular band of fibers arising from the lacunar ligament and the
pubic bone and passing diagonally upward and medially behind the superficial
abdominal ring and in front of the inguinal aponeurotic falx to the linea
ligamentum pectineale / Cooper's ligamentum pectineum / pectineal
ligament / inguinal ligament of Cooper : a strong aponeurotic lateral
continuation of the lacunar ligament along the pectineal line of the pubis
falx aponeurotica or inguinalis / aponeurotic or inguinal
falx / Henle's ligament / tendo conjunctivus / conjoined tendon : the
united tendons of the transverse and internal oblique muscles going to
the linea alba and pectineal line of the pubic bone
pecten ossis pubis / pectineal line : the anterior border of the
superior ramus of the pubis, beginning at the pubic tubercle and continuing
to the iliopubic eminence
cornu superius marginis falciformis / superior horn of falciform margin
/ crus superius marginis falciformis / ligament of Scarpa : the proximal
end of the falciform margin of the saphenous hiatus
musculi thoracis : the muscles of the thorax.
musculi dorsi / dorsal muscles : the muscles of the back.
musculi transversospinales : a general term including the semispinalis
and multifidus muscles and the rotatores.
musculi rotatores / rotator muscles : a series of small muscles
deep in the groove between the spinous and transverse processes of the
vertebrae, including the musculi rotatores cervicis, musculi rotatores
thoracis, and musculi rotatores lumborum.
musculi rotatores breves / short rotator muscles : a name given
the musculi rotatores that insert on the lamina of the vertebra next above
the vertebra of origin.
musculi rotatores cervicis / rotator muscles of neck : origin, transverse
processes of cervical vertebrae; insertion, base of spinous process of
superjacent vertebrae; innervation, spinal nerves; action, extend vertebral
column and rotate it toward the opposite side.
musculi rotatores longi / long rotator muscles : a name given the
musculi rotatores that cross one or two segments of the vertebral column
and insert into the spine of the vertebra next above.
musculi rotatores lumborum : origin, transverse processes of lumbar
vertebrae; insertion, base of spinous process of superjacent vertebrae;
innervation, spinal nerves; action, extend vertebral column and rotate
it toward the opposite side.
musculi rotatores thoracis / rotator muscles of thorax : origin,
transverse processes of thoracic vertebrae; insertion, base of spinous
process of superjacent vertebrae; innervation, spinal nerves; action, extend
vertebral column and rotate it toward the opposite side.
musculi multifidi / multifidus muscles : origin, sacrum, sacroiliac
ligament, mammillary processes of lumbar, transverse processes of thoracic,
and articular processes of cervical vertebrae; insertion, spines of contiguous
vertebrae above; innervation, dorsal branches of spinal nerves; action,
extend, rotate vertebral column.
musculi interspinales / interspinal muscles : short bands of muscle
fibers between spinous processes of contiguous vertebrae, including the
musculi interspinales cervicis, musculi interspinales thoracis, and musculi
musculi interspinales cervicis or colli / interspinal muscles of neck
: paired bands of muscle fibers extending between spinous processes of
contiguous cervical vertebrae, innervated by spinal nerves, and acting
to extend the vertebral column
musculi interspinales lumborum / interspinal muscles of loins :
paired bands of muscle fibers extending between spinous processes of contiguous
lumbar vertebrae, innervated by spinal nerves, and acting to extend the
musculi interspinales thoracis / interspinal muscles of thorax :
paired bands of muscle fibers extending between spinous processes of contiguous
thoracic vertebrae, innervated by spinal nerves, and acting to extend the
musculi intertransversarii / intertransverse muscles : small muscles
passing between the transverse processes of contiguous vertebrae, including
the lateral and medial intertransverse muscles of the loins, the intertransverse
muscles of the thorax, and the anterior and posterior intertransverse muscles
of the neck.
musculi intertransversarii anteriores cervicis or colli / anterior intertransverse
muscles of neck : small muscles passing between the anterior tubercles
of adjacent cervical vertebrae, innervated by spinal nerves, and acting
to bend the vertebral column laterally
musculi intertransversarii laterales (lumborum) / lateral lumbar intertransverse
muscles : small muscles passing between the transverse processes of
adjacent lumbar vertebrae, innervated by spinal nerves, and acting to bend
the vertebral column laterally.
musculi intertransversarii mediales (lumborum) / medial lumbar intertransverse
muscles : small muscles passing from the accessory process of one lumbar
vertebra to the mammillary process of the contiguous lumbar vertebra, innervated
by spinal nerves, and acting to bend the vertebral column laterally.
musculi intertransversarii posteriores (laterales cervicis or colli)
/ posterior lateral intertransverse muscles of neck : small muscles
passing between the posterior tubercles of adjacent cervical vertebrae,
innervated by spinal nerves, and acting to bend the vertebral column laterally
musculi intertransversarii anteriores or thoracis / intertransverse
muscles of thorax : poorly developed muscle bundles extending between
the anterior tubercles of adjacent thoracic vertebrae, innervated by spinal
nerves, and acting to bend the vertebral column laterally.
musculus quadratus lumborum : origin, crest of ilium, thoracolumbar
fascia, lumbar vertebrae; insertion, twelfth rib, transverse processes
of four upper lumbar vertebrae; innervation, first and second lumbar and
twelfth thoracic; action, flexes lumbar vertebrae laterally.
musculus erector spinae or sacrospinalis / erector
muscle of spine : a name given the fibers of the more superficial of
the deep muscles of the back, originating from the sacrum, spines of the
lumbar and the eleventh and twelfth thoracic vertebrae, and the iliac crest,
which split and insert as the iliocostalis, longissimus, and spinalis muscles
musculus iliocostalis / iliocostal muscle : the lateral division
of m. erector spinae, which includes :
musculus iliocostalis cervicis or colli / iliocostal muscle of neck
: origin, angles of third, fourth, fifth, and sixth ribs; insertion, transverse
processes of fourth, fifth, and sixth cervical vertebrae; innervation,
branches of cervical; action, extends cervical spine
musculus iliocostalis lumborum / iliocostal muscle of loins : origin,
iliac crest; insertion, angles of lower 6 or 7 ribs; innervation, branches
of thoracic and lumbar; action, extends lumbar spine.
musculus iliocostalis dorsi or thoracis / iliocostal muscle of thorax
: origin, upper borders of angles of six lower ribs; insertion, angles
of six upper ribs and transverse process of seventh cervical vertebra;
innervation, branches of thoracic; action, keeps thoracic spine erect.
musculus spinalis / spinal muscle
: the medial division of the erector spinae, including the m. spinalis
capitis, m. spinalis cervicis, and m. spinalis thoracis.
musculus spinalis capitis / spinal muscle of head : origin, spines
of upper thoracic and lower cervical vertebrae; insertion, occipital bone;
innervation, spinal nerves; action, extends head.
musculus spinalis cervicis / spinal muscle of neck : origin, spinous
processes of seventh cervical and sometimes 2 upper thoracic vertebrae;
insertion, spinous processes of axis and sometimes of second to fourth
cervical vertebrae; innervation, branches of cervical; action, extends
musculus spinalis dorsi or thoracis / spinal muscle of thorax :
origin, spinous processes of two upper lumbar and 2 lower thoracic; insertion,
spines of upper thoracic vertebrae; innervation, branches of spinal nerves;
action, extends vertebral column.
musculi extremitatis or membri inferioris / muscles of inferior limb
: the muscles acting on the thigh, leg, and foot.
anterior = extensors
musculus iliopsoas / iliopsoas muscle : a compound muscle consisting
of iliacus and psoas major.
musculus iliacus / iliac muscle : origin, iliac fossa and base of
sacrum; insertion, greater psoas tendon and lesser trochanter of femur;
innervation, femoral; action, flexes thigh, trunk on limb.
musculus psoas major / greater psoas muscle : origin, lumbar vertebrae;
insertion, lesser trochanter of femur; innervation, second and third lumbar;
action, flexes thigh or trunk.
Lacuna of muscles / muscular lacuna / lacuna musculorum / muscular compartment
/ iliac canal : a compartment beneath the inguinal ligament for the
passage of the iliopsoas muscle and femoral nerve, separated from the lacuna
vasorum by the iliopectineal arch
posterior = flexors
musculus gluteus maximus / greatest gluteal muscle : origin, lateral
surface of ilium, dorsal surface of sacrum and coccyx, sacrotuberous ligament;
insertion, iliotibial tract of fascia lata, gluteal tuberosity of femur;
innervation, inferior gluteal; action, extends, abducts, and rotates thigh
musculus gluteus medius / middle gluteal muscle : origin, lateral
surface of ilium between anterior and posterior gluteal lines; insertion,
greater trochanter of femur; innervation, superior gluteal; action, abducts
and rotates thigh medially.
musculus gluteus minimus / least gluteal muscle : origin, lateral
surface of ilium between anterior and inferior gluteal lines; insertion,
greater trochanter of femur; innervation, superior gluteal; action, abducts,
rotates thigh medially.
musculus tensor fasciae latae / tensor muscle of fascia lata : origin,
iliac crest; insertion, iliotibial band of fascia lata; innervation, superior
gluteal; action, flexes, rotates thigh medially.
6 internal rotators all at different angles
breech / buttocks / nates / clunes : the prominences
formed by the gluteal muscles on the lower part of the back
musculus gracilis / gracilis muscle : origin, lower half of body
and entire inferior ramus of pubis; insertion, medial surface of shaft
of tibia; innervation, obturator; action, adducts thigh, flexes knee joint.
musculus pectineus / pectineal muscle
: origin, pectineal line of pubis; insertion, femur distal to lesser trochanter;
innervation, obturator and femoral; action, flexes, adducts thigh.
musculus adductor brevis / short adductor muscle : origin, outer
surface of inferior ramus of pubis; insertion, upper part of linea aspera
of femur; innervation, obturator; action, adducts, rotates, flexes thigh.
musculus adductor longus / long
adductor muscle : origin, crest and symphysis of pubis; insertion,
linea aspera of femur; innervation, obturator; action, adducts, rotates,
musculus adductor magnus / great adductor muscle (2 parts) : origin,
DEEP PART—inferior ramus of pubis, ramus of ischium, SUPERFICIAL PART—ischial
tuberosity; insertion, DEEP PART—linea aspera of femur, SUPERFICIAL PART—adductor
tubercle of femur; innervation, DEEP PART—obturator, SUPERFICIAL PART—sciatic;
action, DEEP PART—adducts thigh, SUPERFICIAL PART—extends thigh.
musculus adductor minimus / smallest adductor muscle : a name given
the anterior portion of the adductor magnus muscle; insertion, ischium,
body and ramus of pubis; innervation, obturator and sciatic; action, adducts
move lower leg
anterior = extensor
musculus sartorius / sartorius muscle
: origin, anterior superior iliac spine; insertion, medial side of proximal
end of tibia; innervation, femoral; action, flexes thigh and leg.
musculus quadriceps femoris / quadriceps muscle of thigh : a name
applied collectively to muscles inserting by a common tendon that surrounds
the patella and ends on the tuberosity of the tibia, and acting to extend
the leg upon the thigh
musculus rectus femoris : origin, anterior inferior iliac spine,
rim of acetabulum; insertion, patella, tubercle of tibia; innervation,
femoral; action, extends leg, flexes thigh.
musculus vastus intermedius : origin, anterior and lateral surfaces
of femur; insertion, patella, common tendon of quadriceps femoris; innervation,
femoral; action, extends leg.
musculus vastus lateralis : origin, capsule of hip joint, lateral
aspect of femur; insertion, patella, common tendon of quadriceps femoris;
innervation, femoral; action, extends leg.
musculus vastus medialis : origin, medial aspect of femur; insertion,
patella, common tendon of quadriceps femoris; innervation, femoral; action,
posterior = flexor = hamstring muscles : the muscles of the back
of the thigh, including :
musculus biceps femoris / biceps muscle of thigh (2 heads): origin,
CAPUT LONGUM—ischial tuberosity, CAPUT BREVE—linea aspera of femur; insertion,
head of fibula, lateral condyle of tibia; innervation, CAPUT LONGUM—tibial,
CAPUT BREVE— peroneal, popliteal; action, flexes leg, extends thigh.
musculus semimembranosus / semimembranous muscle : origin, tuberosity
of ischium; insertion, medial condyle and border of tibia, lateral condyle
of femur; innervation, tibial; action, flexes and rotates leg medially,
musculus semitendinosus / semitendinous muscle : origin, tuberosity
of ischium; insertion, upper part of medial surface of tibia; innervation,
tibial; action, flexes and rotates leg medially, extends thigh.
musculus tibialis anterior / anterior tibial muscle : origin, lateral
condyle and lateral surface of tibia, interosseous membrane; insertion,
medial cuneiform and base of first metatarsal; innervation, deep peroneal;
action, dorsiflexes and inverts foot.
musculus extensor digitorum longus / long extensor muscle of toes
: origin, anterior surface of fibula, lateral condyle of tibia, interosseous
membrane; insertion, common extensor tendon of 4 lateral toes: innervation,
deep peroneal; action, extends toes.
musculus extensor hallucis longus / long extensor muscle of great toe
: origin, front of fibula and interosseous membrane; insertion, dorsal
surface of base of distal phalanx of great toe; innervation, deep peroneal;
action, dorsiflexes ankle joint, extends great toe.
musculus fibularis or peroneus tertius / third fibular or peroneal muscle
: origin, anterior surface of fibula, interosseous membrane; insertion,
fifth metatarsal; innervation, deep peroneal; action, everts, dorsiflexes
musculus fibularis or peroneus brevis / short fibular or peroneal muscle
: origin, lateral surface of fibula; insertion, base of fifth metatarsal
bone; innervation, superficial peroneal; action, abducts, plantar flexes
musculus fibularis or peroneus longus / long fibular or peroneal muscle
: origin, lateral condyle of tibia, head and lateral surface of fibula;
insertion, medial cuneiform, first metatarsal; innervation, superficial
peroneal; action, abducts, everts, plantar flexes foot
musculus triceps surae : the gastrocnemius and soleus considered
musculus gastrocnemius / gastrocnemius muscle (2 heads): origin,
CAPUT MEDIALE—popliteal surface of femur, upper part of medial condyle,
and capsule of knee, CAPUT LATERALE—lateral condyle and capsule of knee;
insertion, aponeurosis unites with tendon of soleus to form calcaneal tendon
(Achilles tendon); innervation, tibial; action, plantar flexes ankle joint,
flexes knee joint.
musculus plantaris / plantar muscle : origin, oblique popliteal
ligament, lateral supracondylar line of femur; insertion, posterior part
of calcaneus; innervation, tibial; action, plantar flexes foot.
musculus flexor hallucis longus / long flexor muscle of great toe
: origin, posterior surface of fibula; insertion, base of distal phalanx
of great toe; innervation, tibial; action, flexes great toe.
musculus flexor digitorum longus / long flexor muscle of toes :
origin, posterior surface of shaft of tibia; insertion, distal phalanges
of four lateral toes; innervation, posterior tibial; action, flexes toes
and extends foot.
musculus tibialis posterior / posterior tibial muscle : origin,
tibia, fibula, interosseous membrane; insertion, bases of second to fourth
metatarsals and tarsals, except talus; innervation, tibial; action, plantar
flexes and inverts foot.
intrinsic muscles of foot
musculus flexor digiti minimi or quinti brevis pedis / short flexor
muscle of little toe : origin, base of fifth metatarsal, sheath of
long peroneal muscle; insertion, lateral surface of base of proximal phalanx
of little toe; innervation, lateral plantar; action, flexes little toe.
musculus flexor digitorum brevis / short flexor muscle of toes :
origin, medial tuberosity of calcaneus, plantar fascia; insertion, middle
phalanges of four lateral toes; innervation, medial plantar; action, flexes
musculus flexor hallucis brevis / short flexor muscle of great toe
: origin, under surface of cuboid, lateral cuneiform; insertion, base of
proximal phalanx of great toe; innervation, medial plantar; action, flexes
musculus extensor digitorum brevis / short extensor muscle of toes
: origin, dorsal surface of calcaneus; insertion, extensor tendons of first,
second, third, fourth toes; innervation, deep peroneal; action, extends
musculus extensor hallucis brevis / short extensor muscle of great toe
: a name given the portion of the extensor digitorum brevis muscle that
goes to the great toe.
musculus abductor digiti minimi or quinti pedis / abductor muscle of
little toe : origin, medial and lateral tubercles of calcaneus, plantar
fascia; insertion, lateral surface of base of proximal phalanx of little
toe; innervation, superficial branch of lateral plantar; action, abducts
musculus abductor hallucis / abductor muscle of great toe : origin,
medial tubercle of calcaneus, plantar fascia; insertion, medial surface
of base of proximal phalanx of great toe; innervation, medial plantar;
action, abducts, flexes great toe.
musculus adductor hallucis / adductor muscle of great toe (2 heads)
: origin, CAPUT OBLIQUUM—bases of second, third, and fourth metatarsals,
and sheath of peroneus longus, CAPUT TRANSVERSUM— capsules of metatarsophalangeal
joints of three lateral toes; insertion, lateral side of base of proximal
phalanx of great toe; innervation, lateral plantar; action, adducts great
musculi interossei dorsales pedis / dorsal interosseous muscles of foot
(4): origin, adjacent surfaces of metatarsal bones; insertion, base of
proximal phalanges of second, third, and fourth toes; innervation, lateral
plantar; action, abduct, flex toes.
musculi interossei plantares / plantar interosseous muscles (3):
origin, medial surface of third, fourth, and fifth metatarsal bones; insertion,
medial side of base of proximal phalanges of third, fourth, and fifth toes;
innervation, lateral plantar; action, adduct, flex toes.
musculi lumbricales pedis / lumbrical muscles of foot : origin,
tendons of flexor digitorum longus; insertion, extensor tendons of four
lateral toes; innervation, medial and lateral plantar; action, flex metatarsophalangeal
joints, extend distal phalanges.
musculus gemellus inferior / inferior gemellus muscle : origin,
tuberosity of ischium; insertion, greater trochanter of femur; innervation,
nerve to quadrate muscle of thigh; action, rotates thigh laterally.
musculus gemellus superior / superior gemellus muscle : origin,
spine of ischium; insertion, greater trochanter of femur; innervation,
nerve to internal obturator; action, rotates thigh laterally.
musculus anconeus / anconeus muscle : origin, back of lateral epicondyle
of humerus; insertion, olecranon and posterior surface of ulna; innervation,
radial; action, extends forearm
musculus arrector pili / arrector muscle of hair : origin, papillary
layer of skin; insertion, a hair follicle; innervation, sympathetic; action,
elevate a hair of skin.
musculus articularis cubiti / articular muscle of elbow : a few
fibers of the deep surface of the triceps brachii that insert into the
posterior ligament and synovial membrane of the elbow joint.
musculus articularis genu or genus / articular muscle of knee :
origin, distal fourth of anterior surface of shaft of femur; insertion,
synovial membrane of knee joint; innervation, femoral; action, lifts capsule
of knee joint.
musculus chondroglossus / chondroglossus muscle : origin, medial
side and base of lesser cornu of hyoid bone; insertion, substance of tongue;
innervation, hypoglossal; action, depresses, retracts tongue.
musculus epitrochleoanconaeus / epitrochleoanconeus muscle : an
occasional band of fibers originating at the back of the medial condyle
of the humerus and inserting on the medial side of the olecranon process,
innervated by a branch of the ulnar nerve.
musculus levator veli palatini : origin, apex of petrous portion
of temporal bone and cartilaginous part of auditory tube; insertion, aponeurosis
of soft palate; innervation, pharyngeal plexus of vagus; action, raises
musculus longus capitis / long muscle of head : origin, transverse
processes of third to sixth cervical vertebrae; insertion, basal portion
of occipital bone; innervation, branches from first, second, and third
cervical; action, flexes head.
musculus longus cervicis or colli / long muscle of neck : origin,
SUPERIOR OBLIQUE PORTION—transverse processes of third to fifth cervical
vertebrae; INFERIOR OBLIQUE PORTION—bodies of first to third thoracic vertebrae;
VERTICAL PORTION—bodies of three upper thoracic and three lower cervical
vertebrae; insertion, SUPERIOR OBLIQUE PORTION—tubercle of anterior arch
of atlas; INFERIOR OBLIQUE PORTION—transverse processes of fifth and sixth
cervical vertebrae; VERTICAL PORTION— bodies of second to fourth cervical
vertebrae; innervation, anterior cervical. action, flexes and supports
musculus obliquus capitis inferior / inferior oblique muscle of head
: origin, spinous process of axis; insertion, transverse process of atlas;
innervation, dorsal branches of spinal nerves; action, rotates atlas and
musculus obliquus capitis superior / superior oblique muscle of head
: origin, transverse process of atlas; insertion, occipital bone; innervation,
dorsal branches of spinal nerves; action, extends and moves head laterally.
musculus obturator or obturatorius externus / external obturator muscle
: origin, pubis, ischium, and superficial surface of obturator membrane;
insertion, trochanteric fossa of femur; innervation, obturator; action,
rotates thigh laterally.
musculus obturator or obturatorius internus / internal obturator muscle
: origin, pelvic surface of hip bone, margin of obturator foramen, ramus
of ischium, inferior ramus of pubis, internal surface of obturator membrane;
insertion, greater trochanter of femur; innervation, fifth lumbar, first
and second sacral; action, rotates thigh laterally.
musculi palati mollis et faucium / muscles of soft palate and fauces
: the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles that act upon the soft palate (musculi
palati) and the adjacent pharyngeal wall.
musculus glossopalatinus or palatoglossus / palatoglossus muscle
: origin, under surface of soft palate; insertion, side of tongue; innervation,
pharyngeal plexus of vagus; action, elevates tongue, constricts fauces.
musculus piriformis / piriform muscle : origin, ilium, second to
fourth sacral vertebrae; insertion, upper border of greater trochanter;
innervation, first and second sacral; action, rotates thigh laterally.
musculus popliteus / popliteal muscle : origin, lateral condyle
of femur, lateral meniscus; insertion, posterior surface of tibia; innervation,
tibial; action, flexes leg, rotates leg medially.
musculus psoas minor / smaller psoas muscle : origin, last thoracic
and first lumbar vertebrae; insertion, arcuate line, iliopectineal eminence,
iliac fascia; innervation, first lumbar; action, flexes trunk.
musculus pyramidalis / pyramidal muscle / triangular fascia of Macalister
: origin, anterior aspect of pubis, anterior pubic ligament; insertion,
linea alba; innervation, last thoracic; action, tenses abdominal wall.
musculus pyramidalis auriculae / musculus pyramidalis auricularis /
pyramidal muscle of auricle : a prolongation of the fibers of the tragicus
to the spina helicis.
musculus quadratus femoris / quadrate muscle of thigh : origin,
upper part of lateral border of tuberosity of ischium; insertion, quadrate
tubercle of femur, intertrochanteric crest; innervation, fourth and fifth
lumbar and first sacral; action, adducts, rotates thigh laterally.
musculus quadratus plantae / quadrate muscle of sole / musculus flexor
accessorius / accessory flexor muscle : origin, calcaneus and plantar
fascia; insertion, tendons of flexor digitorum longus; innervation, lateral
plantar; action, aids in flexing toes
musculus rectouterinus / rectouterine muscle : a band of fibers
running between the cervix of the uterus and the rectum, in the rectouterine
musculus rectovesicalis / rectovesical muscle : a band of fibers
in the male, connecting the longitudinal musculature of the rectum with
the external muscular coat of the bladder.
musculus rectus capitis anterior : origin, lateral mass of atlas;
insertion, basilar process of occipital bone; innervation, first and second
cervical; action, flexes, supports head.
musculus rectus capitis lateralis : origin, upper surface of transverse
process of atlas; insertion, jugular process of occipital bone; innervation,
first and second cervical; action, flexes, supports head.
musculus rectus capitis posterior major : origin, spinous process
of axis; insertion, occipital bone; innervation, suboccipital and greater
occipital; action, extends head.
musculus rectus capitis posterior minor : origin, tubercle on dorsal
arch of atlas; insertion, occipital bone; innervation, suboccipital and
greater occipital; action, extends head.
musculus sacrococcygeus dorsalis or posterior / dorsal sacrococcygeal
muscle : a muscular slip passing from the dorsal aspect of the sacrum
to the coccyx.
musculus scalenus anterior / anterior scalene muscle : origin, transverse
processes of third to sixth cervical vertebrae; insertion, scalene tubercle
of first rib; innervation, second to seventh cervical; action, raises first
rib, flexes cervical vertebrae forward and laterally, rotates cervical
vertebrae to opposite side.
musculus scalenus medius / middle scalene muscle : origin, transverse
processes of second to sixth cervical vertebrae; insertion, upper surface
of first rib; innervation, second to seventh cervical; action, raises first
rib, flexes cervical vertebrae laterally.
musculus scalenus minimus / smallest scalene muscle / Sibsons muscle
: a band occasionally found between the m. scalenus anterior and the m.
musculus scalenus posterior / posterior scalene muscle : origin,
posterior tubercles of transverse processes of fourth to sixth cervical
vertebrae; insertion, second rib; innervation, second to seventh cervical;
action, raises first and second ribs, flexes cervical vertebrae laterally
musculus serratus posterior inferior / inferior
posterior serratus muscle : origin, spines of 2 lower thoracic and
two or three upper lumbar vertebrae; insertion, inferior border of four
lower ribs; innervation, ninth to twelfth thoracic; action, lowers ribs
tetragonum lumbale : the quadrangular space bounded by the 4 lumbar
muscles: the serratus posterior inferior superiorly, the internal oblique
inferiorly, the erector spinae internally, and the external oblique externally.
musculus serratus posterior superior / superior posterior serratus muscle
: origin, ligamentum nuchae, spinous processes of upper thoracic vertebrae;
insertion, second, third, fourth, and fifth ribs; innervation, first four
thoracic; action, raises ribs in inspiration.
musculus sphincter pylori or pyloricus / pyloric sphincter muscle /
musculus sphincter pylori / pyloric sphincter / sphincter muscle of pylorus
: a thickening of the circular muscle of the stomach around its opening
into the duodenum
musculus sphincter ampullae hepatopancreaticae / sphincter muscle of
hepatopancreatic ampulla / Oddi's muscle / sphincter of Oddi / Glisson's
sphincter : muscle fibers investing the hepatopancreatic ampulla in
the wall of the duodenum
musculus sphincter ductus biliaris or choledochi : an annular sheath
of muscle that invests the bile duct within the wall of the duodenum.
musculus splenius capitis / splenius muscle of head : origin, lower
half of ligamentum nuchae, spines of seventh cervical and three upper thoracic
vertebrae; insertion, mastoid process of temporal bone, occipital bone;
innervation, middle and lower cervical; action, extends, rotates head.
musculus splenius cervicis / splenius muscle of neck : origin, spinous
processes of third to sixth thoracic vertebrae; insertion, transverse processes
of two or three upper cervical vertebrae; innervation, dorsal branches
of lower cervical; action, extends, rotates head and neck.
musculus sternalis / sternal muscle : a band occasionally found
parallel to the sternum on the sternocostal origin of the pectoralis major.
musculi subcostales / subcostal muscles : origin, inner surface
of ribs: insertion, inner surface of first, second, third rib below; innervation,
intercostal; action, draw adjacent ribs together, depress ribs.
musculi suboccipitales / suboccipital muscles : the muscles situated
just below the occipital bone, including the recti capitis posteriores
major and minor, the oblique capitis inferior and superior, the recti capitis
anterior and lateral, the splenius capitis, and the longus capitis muscles.
musculus tensor veli palatini : origin, scaphoid fossa of pterygoid
process, wall of auditory tube, spine of sphenoid; insertion, aponeurosis
of soft palate, horizontal part of palatine bone; innervation, mandibular;
action, tenses soft palate, opens auditory tube.
musculus transversus nuchae / transverse muscle of neck : a small
muscle often present, passing from the occipital protuberance to the posterior
auricular muscle; it may be either superficial or deep to the trapezius.
musculus transversus thoracis / transverse muscle of thorax : origin,
mediastinal surface of sternum and of xiphoid process; insertion, cartilages
of second to sixth ribs; innervation, intercostal; action, draws ribs downward.
musculus uvulae / muscle of uvula : origin, posterior nasal spine
of palatine bone and aponeurosis of soft palate; insertion, uvula; innervation,
pharyngeal plexus of vagus; action, raises uvula.
Gavard's muscle : the oblique muscular elements of the stomach wall
Jarjavay's muscle : a muscle arising from the ramus of the ischium
and inserting in the constrictor muscle of the vagina, which acts to depress
Landström's muscle : minute muscle fibers in the fascia around
and behind the eyeball, attached in front to the anterior orbital fascia
Langer's muscle : muscular fibers from the insertion of the pectoralis
major muscle over the bicipital groove to the insertion of the latissimus
Ochsner's muscle : an inconstant muscular thickening of the duodenal
muscle just distal to the opening of the common bile duct
Phillips' muscle : a muscular slip from the radial collateral ligament
of the wrist and the styloid process of the radius to the phalanges
visceral muscle : muscle fibers associated chiefly with the hollow
viscera and largely of splanchnic mesodermal origin; except for the striated
fibers in the wall of the heart, they are smooth muscle fibers bound together
by reticular fibers.
papillary muscle of conus arteriosus : a septal papillary muscle
arising near the septal end of the supraventricular crest and attached
to the anterior and septal cusps of the tricuspid valve
septal papillary muscles of right ventricle : several small papillary
muscles in the right ventricle of the heart, arising from the interventricular
septum and attaching to adjacent cusps of the tricuspid valve via chordae
Oehl's muscle : muscle fibers in the chordae tendineae of the left
musculi papillares / papillary muscles : conical muscular projections
from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the
atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae. There is an anterior
and a posterior papillary muscle in each ventricle, as well as a group
of small papillary muscles on the septum in the right ventricle.
musculus papillaris anterior ventriculi dextri / anterior papillary
muscle of right ventricle : the papillary muscle arising from the sternocostal
wall of the right ventricle.
musculus papillaris anterior ventriculi sinistri / anterior papillary
muscle of left ventricle : the papillary muscle arising from the anterior
wall of the left ventricle.
musculus papillaris posterior ventriculi dextri / posterior papillary
muscle of right ventricle : the papillary muscle arising from the diaphragmatic
wall of the right ventricle.
musculus papillaris posterior ventriculi sinistri / posterior papillary
muscle of left ventricle : the papillary muscle arising from the posterior
wall of the left ventricle.
musculi pectinati atrii dextri / pectinate muscles of right atrium
: small ridges of muscle fibers projecting from the inner walls of the
right auricle of the heart and extending in the right atrium to the crista
musculi pectinati atrii sinistri / pectinate muscles of left atrium
: small ridges of muscle fibers projecting from the inner walls of the
left auricle of the heart.
musculi laryngis / muscles of larynx : the intrinsic and extrinsic
muscles of the larynx,
musculus cricoarytenoideus lateralis / lateral cricoarytenoid muscle
: one of the intrinsic muscles of the larynx; origin, lateral surface of
cricoid cartilage; insertion, muscular process of arytenoid cartilage;
innervation, recurrent laryngeal; action, approximates vocal folds.
musculus cricoarytenoideus posterior / posterior cricoarytenoid muscle
: one of the intrinsic muscles of the larynx; origin, back of cricoid cartilage;
insertion, muscular process of arytenoid cartilage; innervation, recurrent
laryngeal; action, separates vocal folds.
musculus cricothyroideus / cricothyroid muscle : one of the intrinsic
muscles of the larynx; origin, front and side of cricoid cartilage; insertion,
lamina of thyroid cartilage; innervation, superior laryngeal; action, tenses
musculus thyroarytenoideus / thyroarytenoid muscle : one of the
intrinsic muscles of the larynx; origin, lamina of thyroid cartilage; insertion,
muscular process of arytenoid cartilage; innervation, recurrent laryngeal;
action, relaxes, shortens vocal folds.
musculus ventricularis : a name applied to fibers of the thyroarytenoid
muscle running into the vestibular folds.
musculus thyroepiglotticus / pars thyroepiglottica musculi thyroarytenoidei
musculus ceratocricoideus / ceratocricoid muscle : a name given
muscular fasciculus arising from the cricoid cartilage and inserted on
the inferior cornu of the thyroid cartilage, considered one of the intrinsic
muscles of the larynx.
musculus vocalis / vocal muscle : one of the intrinsic muscles of
the larynx; origin, angle between laminae of thyroid cartilage; insertion,
vocal process of arytenoid cartilage; innervation, recurrent laryngeal;
action, shortens and relaxes vocal folds.
musculus arytenoideus obliquus / oblique arytenoid muscle : one
of the intrinsic muscles of the larynx; origin, dorsal aspect of muscular
process of arytenoid cartilage; insertion, apex of opposite arytenoid cartilage;
innervation, recurrent laryngeal; action, closes inlet of larynx.
musculus aryepiglotticus / pars ary-epiglottica musculi arytenoidei
musculus arytenoideus transversus / transverse arytenoid muscle
: one of the intrinsic muscles of the larynx; origin, dorsal aspect of
muscular process of arytenoid cartilage; insertion, continuous with thyroarytenoid,
apex of opposite cartilage; innervation, recurrent laryngeal; action, approximates
musculus bronchooesophageus / bronchoesophageal muscle : a name
given muscular fasciculi arising from the wall of the left bronchus, reinforcing
muscles of the esophagus.
musculi pharyngis / pharyngeal muscles : the muscular coat of the
pharynx, consisting of
musculus palatopharyngeus or pharyngopalatinus / palatopharyngeal muscle
: one of the intrinsic muscles of the larynx; origin, soft palate; insertion,
aponeurosis of pharynx, dorsal border of thyroid cartilage; innervation,
pharyngeal plexus of vagus; action, aids in deglutition.
musculus salpingopharyngeus / salpingopharyngeal muscle : origin,
auditory tube near its orifice; insertion, posterior part of palatopharyngeus;
innervation, pharyngeal plexus of vagus; action, raises nasopharynx.
musculus stylopharyngeus / stylopharyngeal muscle : one of the intrinsic
muscles of the larynx; origin, styloid process; insertion, thyroid cartilage
and pharyngeal constrictors; innervation, pharyngeal plexus, glossopharyngeal;
action, raises and dilates pharynx.
musculus constrictor pharyngis superior / superior constrictor muscle
of pharynx : origin, medial pterygoid plate, pterygomandibular raphe,
mylohyoid ridge of mandible, and mucous membrane of floor of mouth; insertion,
median raphe of posterior wall of pharynx; innervation, pharyngeal plexus
of vagus; action, constricts pharynx. It is divided into buccopharyngeal,
glossopharyngeal, mylopharyngeal, and pterygopharyngeal parts (pars buccopharyngea
(musculus buccopharyngeus), pars glossopharyngea, pars mylopharyngea
(musculus mylopharyngeus), and pars pterygopharyngea (musculus
musculus constrictor pharyngis medius / middle constrictor muscle of
pharynx : origin, cornua of hyoid and stylohyoid ligament; insertion,
median raphe of posterior wall of pharynx; innervation, pharyngeal plexus
of vagus and glossopharyngeal; action, constricts pharynx. It is divided
into a ceratopharyngeal part and an chondropharyngeal part (pars ceratopharyngea
(musculus ceratopharyngeus) and pars chondropharyngea (musculus
musculus constrictor pharyngis inferior / inferior constrictor muscle
of pharynx : origin, under surfaces of cricoid and thyroid cartilages;
insertion, median raphe of posterior wall of pharynx; innervation, glossopharyngeal,
pharyngeal plexus, and external and recurrent laryngeal; action, constricts
pharynx. It is divided into a cricopharyngeal part and a thyropharyngeal
part (pars cricopharyngea (musculus cricopharyngeus) and pars thyropharyngea
musculus cremaster / cremaster muscle : origin, inferior margin
of internal oblique muscle of abdomen; insertion, pubic tubercle; innervation,
genital branch of genitofemoral; action, elevates testis.
hypaxial or subvertebral muscles : musculus longus capitis, musculus
longus colli, the vertebral portion of the diaphragm, and musculus sacrococcygeus
fascia pelvica or pelvis / hypogastric or pelvic fascia : an inclusive
term for the fascia that forms part of the general layer lining the walls
of the pelvis and invests the pelvic organs
fascia pelvica or pelvis parietalis / parietal fascia of pelvis
: the fascia on the wall of the pelvis that covers the muscles which pass
from the interior of the pelvis to the thigh
obturator fascia / fascia obturatoria : the part of the parietal
fascia of the pelvis covering the internal obturator muscle
fascia pelvis visceralis / visceral fascia of pelvis : the fascia
that covers the organs and vessels of the pelvis.
fascia perinei superficialis / superficial fascia of perineum / Cruveilhier's
fascia : the subcutaneous tissue of the urogenital region, comprising
a superficial fatty and a deep membranous layer
peritoneoperineal fascia / fascia peritoneoperinealis : the fusion
fascia that passes from the front of the rectum to form the floor of the
rectovesical or rectovaginal pouch, contributing to the rectovesical or
musculus sphincter ani internus / internal sphincter muscle of anus
/ internal anal sphincter : a thickening of the circular lamina of
the tunica muscularis at the caudal end of the rectum
musculus sphincter vesicae urinariae / sphincter muscle of urinary bladder
: a circular layer of fibers surrounding the internal urethral orifice,
innervated by the vesical nerve, and acting to close the internal orifice
of the urethra.
musculus sphincter urethrae (membranaceae) / sphincter muscle of urethra
: origin, ramus of pubis; insertion, median raphe behind and in front of
urethra; innervation, perineal; action, compresses the membranous part
of the urethra
circular Santorini's muscles : the nonstriated fibers that encircle
the urethra beneath the sphincter urethrae.
Bell's muscle / ureteric bridge : the muscular strands between the
ureteric orifices and the uvula vesicae, bounding the trigone of the urinary
trigonal muscle : a submucous muscular sheet of the trigone of the
bladder, continuous with muscles of the ureteral wall above and extending
to the proximal urethra.
supporting system for pelvic organs
diaphragma pelvis / pelvic diaphragm
: the portion of the floor of the pelvis formed by ...
musculi diaphragmatis pelvis : the muscles of the pelvic diaphragm.
musculi coccygei / coccygeal muscles : the muscles acting upon the
coccyx, including ...
musculus coccygeus / coccygeal muscle : origin, ischial spine; insertion,
lateral border of lower part of sacrum, upper coccyx; innervation, third
and fourth sacral; action, supports and raises coccyx. The 2 bundles limit
the genital hiatus
musculus sacrococcygeus anterior or ventralis / ventral sacrococcygeal
muscle : a musculotendinous slip passing from the lower sacral vertebrae
to the coccyx.
musculus levator ani / levator
ani muscle : a name applied collectively to important muscular components
of the pelvic diaphragm, including the
musculus pubococcygeus / pubococcygeal
muscle : the anterior portion of the levator ani, originating anterior
to the obturator canal; insertion, anococcygeal ligament and side of coccyx;
innervation, third and fourth sacral; action, helps support pelvic viscera
and resist increases in intra-abdominal pressure.
musculus levator prostatae / levator muscle of prostate : a part
of the anterior portion of the pubococcygeus muscle, inserted in the prostate
and the tendinous center of the perineum; innervated by sacral and pudendal
nerves, it supports and compresses the prostate and is involved in control
musculus pubovaginalis / pubovaginal muscle : a part of the anterior
portion of the pubococcygeus muscle, which is inserted into the urethra
and vagina; innervated by the sacral and pudendal nerves, it is involved
in control of micturition.
musculus puborectalis / puborectal
muscle / Braune's muscle : a portion of the levator ani having a more
lateral origin from the pubic bone, and continuous posteriorly with the
corresponding muscle of the opposite side; innervation, third and fourth
sacral; action, helps support pelvic viscera and resist increases in intra-abdominal
musculus iliococcygeus / iliococcygeal muscle : the posterior portion
of the levator ani which originates as far anteriorly as the obturator
canal and inserts on the side of the coccyx and the anococcygeal body;
innervation, third and fourth sacral; action, helps to support pelvic viscera
and resist increases in intra-abdominal pressure.
fascia superior diaphragmatis pelvis / superior fascia of diaphragm
of pelvis / fascia diaphragmatis pelvis superior / superior layer
of pelvic diaphragm / rectal or rectovesical fascia / middle perineal
fascia : the fascia on the upper surface of the levator ani and coccygeus
ligamentum puboprostaticum / puboprostatic
ligament : a thickening of the superior fascia of the pelvic diaphragm
in the male that, laterally, extends from the prostate to the tendinous
arch of the pelvic fascia and, medially, is a forward continuation of the
tendinous arch to the pubis
ligamentum pubovesicale / pubovesical
ligament : a thickening of the superior fascia of the pelvic diaphragm
in the female that, laterally, extends from the neck of the bladder to
the tendinous arch of the pelvic fascia and, medially, is a forward continuation
of the tendinous arch to the pubis.
ligamentum pubovesicale laterale : lateral extension of ligamentum
ligamentum pubovesicale medium : medial extension of ligamentum
fascia inferior diaphragmatis pelvis / inferior fascia of diaphragm
of pelvis / ischiorectal fascia or aponeurosis / fascia diaphragmatis pelvis
inferior / inferior layer of pelvic diaphragm : the fascia that covers
the lower surface of the coccygeus and levator ani muscles, forming the
medial wall of the ischiorectal fossa
diaphragma urogenitale / urogenital
diaphragm / accessory or secondary diaphragm / Camper's ligament / fascia
of urogenital trigone : traditional but no longer valid concept that
superior and inferior fascial layers enclose the sphincter urethrae and
deep transverse perineal muscles and together form a musculomembranous
sheet that extends between the ischiopubic rami.
musculi diaphragmatis urogenitalis : the muscles of the urogenital
musculi perineales / musculi perinei / muscles
of perineum : the muscles participating in formation of the perineum.
musculus transversus perinei profundus / deep
transverse perineal muscle : origin, ramus of ischium; insertion, perineal
body; innervation, perineal; action, fixes tendinous center of perineum.
pubourethral ligament ?
membrana perinei / membrane of perineum / fascia diaphragmatis urogenitalis
inferior / inferior fascia of urogenital diaphragm / perineal membrane
: the triangular fibrous membrane stretched horizontally between the ischiopubic
rami, which is attached at its base to the perineal
body, its apex thickening to form the transverse perineal ligament
superficial perineal muscles
musculus bulbocavernosus or bulbospongiosus / bulbocavernous
muscle : origin, central point of perineum, median raphe of bulb; insertion,
fascia of penis (clitoris); innervation, pudendal; action, constricts bulbous
Houston's muscle : fibers of the
bulbocavernosus muscle compressing the dorsal vein of the penis.
musculus transversus perinei superficialis / superficial
transverse perineal muscle / Theile's muscle : origin, ramus of ischium;
insertion, perineal body; innervation, perineal;
action, fixes tendinous center of perineum
musculus sphincter ani externus / external
sphincter muscle of anus / external anal sphincter : origin, tip of
coccyx, anococcygeal ligament; insertion, perineal
body; innervation, inferior rectal and fourth sacral; action, closes
ligamentum teres uteri / round
ligament of uterus: a fibromuscular band in the female that
is attached to the uterus near the attachment of the uterine tube, passing
then along the broad ligament,
into the inguinal canal,
out through the inguinal ring, and into the labium majus.
or cardinal ligament : part of a thickening of the visceral pelvic
fascia beside the cervix and vagina, passing laterally to merge with the
upper fascia of the pelvic diaphragm
ligament / plica recto-uterina [Douglasi] / rectouterine fold : a crescentic
fold of peritoneum extending from the rectum to the base of the broad ligament
on either side, forming the rectouterine pouch.
expansions of muscular tissue in the broad ligament of the uterus, radiating
from the fascia over the obturator internus to the side of the uterus and
or Petit's uterosacral ligament : a part of the thickening of the visceral
pelvic fascia beside the cervix and vagina, passing posteriorly in the
rectouterine fold to attach to the front of the sacrum
nonstriated or smooth muscle (see also
of smooth muscles)
: a type of muscle without transverse striations in its constituent fibers;
such muscles are almost always involuntary
smooth muscle cell / contractile fiber cells : the spindle-shaped
and nucleated cells which, collected into bundles, make up unstriated or
myoepithelial cells / basket cells
: modified smooth muscle cells, contractile in nature, believed to be of
ectodermal origin, located around the secretory units of certain exocrine
glands (salivary, mammary, sweat, and lacrimal glands) between the gland
cells and basement membrane, having long dendritic interweaving cytoplasmic
processes, and containing myofilaments. It is assumed that contraction
of these cells functions to help express secretion from the gland
involuntary muscle : a muscle that
is not under the control of the will; such muscles are, for the most part,
composed of nonstriated fibers.
musculus puboprostaticus / puboprostatic
muscle : smooth muscle fibers contained within the medial puboprostatic
ligament, which pass from the prostate anteriorly to the pubis.
musculus pubovesicalis / pubovesical
muscle : smooth muscle fibers extending from the neck of the urinary
bladder to the pubis.
musculus pleurooesophageus / pleuroesophageal
muscle : a bundle of smooth muscle usually connecting the esophagus
with the left mediastinal pleura.
musculus rectococcygeus / rectococcygeal
muscle : smooth muscle fibers originating on the anterior surface of
the second and third coccygeal vertebrae and inserting on the posterior
surface of the rectum, innervated by autonomic nerves, and acting to retract
and elevate the rectum.
musculus rectourethralis / rectourethral
muscle : a band of smooth muscle fibers extending from the perineal
flexure of the rectum to the membranous urethra in the male.
musculus trachealis / tracheal muscle
: a transverse layer of smooth fibers in the dorsal portion of the trachea;
insertion, tracheal cartilages; innervation, autonomic fibers; action,
lessens caliber of trachea.
musculus suspensorius duodeni / suspensory
muscle of duodenum : a flat band of smooth muscle originating from
the left crus of the diaphragm, and continuous with the muscular coat of
the duodenum at its junction with the jejunum.
musculus detrusor vesicae / detrusor
muscle of bladder / detrusor urinae (muscle) : the bundles of smooth
muscle fibers forming the muscular coat of the urinary bladder, which are
arranged in a longitudinal and a circular layer and, on contraction, serve
to expel urine
musculus dartos / dartos muscle
: the nonstriated muscle fibers of the tunica dartos, the deeper layers
of which help to form the septum of the scrotum
Sebileau's muscle : the deeper fibers
of the musculus dartos
musculus orbitalis / orbital muscle
: a thin layer of nonstriated muscle that bridges the inferior orbital
fissure; innervation, sympathetic branches.
tendon / tendo (see also diseases
: a fibrous cord of connective tissue by which a muscle is attached. Tendons
are usually named after the muscle to which they attach.
membranaceous tendon / aponeurosis : a white, flattened or ribbon-like
tendinous expansion, serving mainly to connect a muscle with the parts
that it moves
fascia : a sheet or band of fibrous tissue such as lies deep to
the skin or forms an investment for muscles and various other organs of
femoral septum / septum femorale [Cloqueti] : the thin fibrous membrane
that helps to close the anulus femoralis; it is derived from the fascia
transversalis, is perforated for the passage of lymphatic vessels, and
is embedded in fat.
hemal septum : a structure of lower animals which in humans is represented
by the linea alba and the transversalis, iliac, and rectovesical fasciae.
neural septum : a prolongation, chiefly in the lower vertebrates,
of the general investing fascia, extending medially from the surface toward
the skeleton; represented in humans by the ligamentum nuchae and the supraspinous
and interspinous ligaments.
common tendon : a tendon that serves more than one muscle
tendon corpuscles : flattened cells of connective tissue occurring
in rows between the primary bundles of the tendons.
bursas (see also diseases
a small sac or saclike cavity filled with a viscid fluid and situated at
places in the tissues at which friction and pressure would otherwise develop
(usuallyover the bony prominence)
motoricity : the faculty of performing movement; power of movement
tonus : the slight, continuous contraction of muscle, which in skeletal
muscles aid in the maintenance of posture and in the return of blood to
angular motion is comprised of
flexion is movement in the anterior-posterior plane that reduces
the angle between the articulating elements
extension occurs in the same plane as flexion, except that it increases
the angle between articulating elements
hyperextension : extreme or excessive extension
abduction : motion directed away from the midline of the body
adduction : motion toward the midline of the body
Circumduction is a special type of angular motion, described as
making circular movements as moving the arm in a loop.
dorsiflexion is the movement of the ankle while elevating the sole,
as if "digging in the heel."
plantar flexion is the opposite movement, extending the ankle and
elevating the heel, as if "standing on tiptoes."
elevation/depression occurs when a structure moves in a superior
or inferior direction
gliding occurs when two opposing surfaces slide past each other
as between articulating carpals and tarsals and between the clavicles and
opposition is a special movement of the thumb which enables it to
grasp and hold an object.
pronation/supination refers to the rotation of the distal end of
the radius across the anterior surface of the ulna. This rotation moves
the wrist and hand from palm-facing-front (supination) to palm-facing-back
protraction entails moving a part of the body anteriorly in the
retraction is the reverse movement of protraction
rotation involves turning the body or a limb around the longitudinal
torsion : twisting
passive motion : movement of a patient's joint by a person who is
examining or treating the patient
active motion : joint motion carried out by the patient
traction : a pulling force, often provided by weights hung over
the end of the bed and attached to some part of the body by means of tape,
Nature Insight Bone and cartilage in Nature Vol.423 15 May