PEDIATRICS / PEDIATRY : that branch of medicine which treats of the child and its development and care and of the diseases of children and their treatment.

Table of contents :


  • Neonatology
  • Adolescentology
  • Pediatric infections
  • Pediatric cardiology
  • Pediatric neurology (neuropediatrics)
  • Pediatric hematology/oncology
  • Pediatric gastroenterology
  • Pediatric gynecology
  • Pediatric andrology
  • Pediatric endocrinology
  • Pediatric nephrology
  • Pediatric pneumology
  • Pediatric dermatology
  • Pediatric orthopedics
  • Pediatric surgery
  • Death causes
  • Web resources

  • See also in vitro fertilization (IVF)
    See also physiology of development
    See also pregnancy and diseases of pregnancy
    See also hereditary diseases, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, prenatal screenings, and postnatal screening
    See also multisystem birth defects

    An estimated 1 billion children from the total of 2.2 billion in the world are living in poverty. 33% (640 million) children do not have adequate shelter, 500 million had no access to sanitation, and 400 million do not have access to safe water. Furthermore, 90 million children are severely deprived of food and 270 million have no access to healthcare services. Statistics show that poverty is not exclusive to developing countries. The proportion of children living in low income households has increased over the past decade in 11 of the 15 developed countries for which comparable data are available. Extreme poverty is considered one of the central causes of conflict, along with poor governance. 55 of 59 armed conflicts that took place between 1990 and 2003 occured within, rather than between, countries. Children account for nearly half of the 3.6 million people killed in these conflicts. Conflict also had a catastrophic impact on overall health. In a typical 5 year war, the mortality of children under the age of 5 years increased by 13%. The impact of HIV/AIDS on children is seen most dramatically in the number of orphans to AIDS—now totalling 15 million worldwide. In addition, AIDS is now the single largest killer of people aged 15-49 in the developing world

    Neonatology : the art and science of diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the newborn infant

    Adolescentology :
    The primary challenges of adolescence : Developmental tasks of adolescence
     
    biological
    psychological
    social
    early adolescence early puberty (girls: breast bud and pubic hair development, start of growth spurt; boys: testicular enlargement, start of genital growth)  concrete thinking but early moral concepts; progression of sexual identity development (sexual orientation); possible homosexual peer interest; reassessment of body image  emotional separation from parents; start of strong peer identification; early exploratory behaviours (smoking, violence) 
    mid-adolescence  girls: mid-late puberty and end of growth spurt; menarche; development of female body shape with fat deposition Boys: mid-puberty, spermarche and nocturnal emissions; voice breaks; start of growth spurt  abstract thinking, but self still seen as "bullet proof"; growing verbal abilities; identification of law with morality; start of fervent ideology (religious, political)  emotional separation from parents; strong peer identification; increased health risk (smoking, alcohol, etc); heterosexual peer interest; early vocational plans
    late adolescence boys: end of puberty; continued increase in muscle bulk and body hair complex abstract thinking; identification of difference between law and morality; increased impulse control; further development of personal identify; further development or rejection of religious and political ideology development of social autonomy; intimate relationships; development of vocational capability and financial independence
    The challenges for young people : Psychological development occurs against a background of rapid physical change, including puberty, the pubertal growth spurt, and accompanying maturational changes in other organ systems. Although girls seem to enter puberty long before boys, the earliest sign in boys (increasing testicular volume), begins at a mean age of 12 years, only 6 months after girls development breast buds (the first sign of puberty). Girls also seem considerably more developed earlier as the female growth spurt occurs early in puberty (mean age 11-12 years) compared with later in puberty in boys (mean age 14 years). The defining event of puberty in girls is menarche. The mean age at menarche showed a substantial decline in most developed countries through the first half of the 20th century, stabilising in the 1960s in most countries at around 13 years for white girls and 12.5 years for black girls. The commonest clinical concerns about puberty are delayed puberty and short stature, particularly in boys. The 97th centile for developing increased testicular volume (4 ml) is 14 years. Thus about 2% of boys will still be prepubertal (and therefore short) at 14-15 years. This can be quite distressing but is almost always a normal variant (constitutional delay of puberty and growth) that is often familial. By the time most boys present to their doctor, they will have early signs of testicular enlargement, which is easily assessed using an orchidometer. Boys aged 15 or over with a testicular volume of 4 ml or more can be reassured that puberty is beginning. Those with no signs of puberty by age 15 should be referred to a paediatric endocrinologist for further investigation.
    Bibliography : McIntosh N, Helms, P, Smyth R, eds. Forfar and Arneil's textbook of paediatrics. 6th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2003
    Web resources : Pediatric infections : exanthematous disease of childhood Web resources : European Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases (ESPID)

    Pediatric cardiology : in a consciousless newborn the central pulse is searched at the level of the brachial artery

    Pediatric neuropsychiatry : specificity of the diseases of the nervous system in childhood : Pediatric immunology: physiological immunodeficiency in the first 3 months of liferef. The lymphatic system has a growth curve higher than any other system until age 13. The spleen is normally palpated in 13.5% of newborns, 12.7% of babies at age 1, and 7.2% of children between age 2 and 11. 650atology/oncology Web resources : Pediatric gastroenterology Web resources : Pediatric gynaecology: Pediatric andrology: Pediatric endocrinology: Pediatric nephrology Pediatric urology : Pediatric pneumology : Pediatric dermatology : Pediatric orthopedics: Pediatric surgery: Web resources : Death causes between age 0 and 14 : Death causes :
    first year
    1-4 years
    5-14 years
    15-24 years
    1-14 years
  • perinatal causes :
    • IUGR/LBW
  • neonatal respiratory diseases
  • newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy
  • newborn affected by placental, umbilical cord and adnexal diseases
  • perinatal infections
  • intrauterine hypoxia/neonatal hypoxia
  • congenital anomalies
  • suddent infant death syndrome (SIDS)
  • accidents and similar events
  • (respiratory) infections
  • traumas
  • congenital anomalies
  • malignant neoplasms
  • homicides and legal intervention
  • cardiopathies
  • respiratory infections

  • traumas 
  • malignant neoplasms
  • homicides and legal interventions
  • congenital anomalies
  • cardiopathies
  • suicide
  • traumas
  • homicide
  • malignant neoplasms
  • cardiopathies
  • malformations (3%)
  • accidents (10%)
  • neurological diseases (2.2%)
  • neoplasms (4.7%)
  • others (7.1%)
  • Web resources :


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