general resources (see also the human
genome resources
in Multicellular Eukarya genome sequencing projects section)
Nomina Anatomica : the official body of anatomical nomenclature,
applied specifically to that revised by the International Anatomical Nomenclature
Committee appointed by the Fifth International Congress of Anatomists held
at Oxford in 1950, and approved by the Sixth International Congress of
Anatomists (Paris, 1955) with revisions approved by the Seventh (New York,
1960), Eighth (Wiesbaden, 1965), Tenth (Tokyo, 1975), Eleventh (Mexico
City, 1980), and Twelfth (London, 1985) International Congresses of Anatomists.
It has been superseded by
Terminologia Anatomica (TA) : International Anatomical Terminology:
the official body of anatomical nomenclature created jointly by the Federative
Committee on Anatomical Terminology and the 56 Member Associations of the
International Associations of Anatomists and published in 1998.
anatomical position : the position
of the human body, standing erect, with the face directed anteriorly and
with the upper limbs at the sides and the palms turned anteriorly (supinated);
used as the position of reference in description of site or direction of
various structures or parts as established in official anatomical nomenclature.
clinostatism : a lying-down position
of the body
orthostatism : an erect standing position
of the body
écorché : a painting or sculpture of a man or other
animal exhibited as deprived of its skin, so that the muscles are exposed
for study
manikin : a model of the body, usually with movable or removable
members and parts; uses include illustrating anatomy; teaching nursing
and obstetrics; teaching certain surgical procedures, such as the removal
of foreign bodies by bronchoscopy;
and teaching cardiopulmonary
resuscitation.
physiome : quantitative and integrated description of the functional
behavior of the physiological state of an individual or species. The physiome
describes the physiological dynamics of the normal intact organism and
is built upon information and structure (genome, proteome, and morphome)
newborn infant
(birth < t < month 1 (in Italy : birth < t < 15 days (fall
of umbilical cord stump))
breast-fed (month 1-month 12)
first infancy/ early childhood (1-5
years)
toddler (1-3 years)
preschooler (3-6 years)
second infancy / late childhood / schoolage (6-12
years)
adolescence / youth (13-17 years)
teen (10-19 years)
adulthood (> 18 years)
Anthropology (see
also paleontology
and paleoanthropology)
: the science that treats of humans, their origins, historical and cultural
development, and races.
criminal anthropology : that branch of anthropology
which treats of criminals and crimes.
cultural anthropology : that branch of anthropology
which treats of humans in relation to their fellows and to their environment.
physical anthropology : that branch of anthropology
which treats of the physical characteristics of humans.
anthropometry
: the science which deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and
proportions of the human body.
height : Statements that the average US citizens has gained an inch
since the 1960s, released last week, have been criticized as misleading
by a Munich-based historian of economics. The US National
Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)^{ref},
published by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) on 27 October
2004, presents trends in estimates of mean weight, height and body mass
index of adults from 1960 to 2002. The weight of the average American is
increasing alarmingly: the average for both men and women has increased
by 11 kilograms over the past 40 years. Americans did increase in height
by just under an inch between 1960 and 1970, but they have stayed roughly
the same height in the past three decades, whereas Europeans are still
growing. Today western and northern Europeans are towering over Americans
by as much as 7 centimetres and still growing. The opposite situation held
in the nineteenth century, when Americans had a height advantage over Europeans
of 3-9 centimetres^{ref}.
Height generally increases in times of prosperity and decreases when conditions
are harsher : in the second half of the twentieth century, US financial
prosperity has not translated into a higher biological standard of living.
The reasons include greater social inequality, inferior health and prenatal
care and a worsening attitude to preventative medicine in the United States,
compared with Europe. There has been a lot of immigration in the United
States, especially in the past few decades, and that affects things
diameter (d) : the length of a straight line passing through the
center of a circle and connecting opposite points on its circumference;
hence the distance between two specified opposite points on the periphery
of a structure such as the cranium or pelvis
anteroposterior diameter : the distance between a point on the anterior
aspect and one on the posterior aspect of a structure, such as the true
conjugate diameter of the pelvis, or the occipitofrontal diameter of the
skull.
vertical diameter : the distance between 2 points situated on the
upper and lower aspects of the structure being measured, such as the distance
between the occipital foramen and the vertex of the skull
transverse diameter : the distance between 2 points located on the
opposite sides of the body part being measured, such as the biparietal
diameter of the head.
craniometry : the scientific measurement of the dimensions of the
bones of the skull and face
porion / point Po : a craniometric landmark,
being the most lateral point on the roof of the bony external acoustic
meatus, vertically over the middle of the meatus
basion / point Ba : a craniometric landmark
located at the midpoint of the anterior border of the foramen magnum in
the median plane
basiobregmatic line : a line from the basion
to the bregma
basialveolar length : the distance from the basion
to the lower end of the intermaxillary suture.
basinasal or nasobasal line : a line from the basion
to the nasion => basinasal length
nasobasilar line : a line through the basion
and nasal point
Poirier's line : a line running from the nasofrontal angle to a
point just above the lambda.
Flower's dental index : a craniometric index obtained by multiplying
the dental length by 100 and dividing the product by the basinasal length
alveolobasilar line : a line from the basion
to the upper alveolar limit
jugal point : the craniometric point at the union of the frontal
and temporal processes of the zygomatic bone
cephalometry : scientific measurement of the dimensions of the head.
In dentistry, certain combinations of linear and angular measurements developed
from tracing the oriented lateral and frontal radiographic head film are
used to assess craniofacial growth and development on a longitudinal basis
and to determine the nature of orthodontic treatment response
nasion : a cephalometric landmark located where
the internasal and nasofrontal sutures meet; it corresponds roughly to
the depression at the root of the nose just inferior to the level of the
eyebrows.
gnathion : an anthropometric landmark indicating
the lowest point on the median line of the mandible.
gonion : an anthropometric landmark located
at the most inferior, posterior, and lateral point on the external angle
of the mandible, being the apex of the maximum curvature of the mandible,
where the ascending ramus becomes confluent with the corpus
pogonion : a craniometric landmark, being
the most anterior point in the contour of the chin in the sagittal plane
lambda : the point at the site of the posterior
fontanel where the lambdoid and sagittal sutures meet; used as a craniometric
landmark
bregma : the point on the surface of the skull
at the junction of the coronal and sagittal sutures; used as a craniometric
landmark
menton : a cranial osteometric landmark, being
the lowest point of the mandibular symphysis on the lateral jaw projection
as seen on x-ray films.
vertex of bony cranium / vertex cranii ossei
: the highest point or crown of the skull; generally located on the sagittal
suture, usually near the midpoint
Jadelot's furrows or lines : lines of the face in young children,
formerly thought to indicate specific types of disease
genal line : extending from the nasal line near the mouth toward
the malar bone.
labial line : extending laterally from the angle of the mouth, thought
to indicate disease of the lungs
nasal line : extending from the ala nasi in a semicircle around
the mouth.
oculozygomatic line
fetal cephalometry : measurement
of the fetal skull in utero by means of x-ray films or by interpreting
the echoes of ultrasonic radiation received from each side of the skull.
pelvimetry : the measurement of the dimensions and capacity of the
pelvis.
bi-iliac line : one joining the most prominent points of the two
iliac crests
combined pelvimetry : pelvimetry in which measurements are made
both within and outside the body.
instrumental pelvimetry : measurement of the pelvis with the pelvimeter.
manual pelvimetry : that which is performed with the hands.
x-ray pelvimetry : the measurement of the maternal pelvis and the
fetal head using radiographic techniques
cephalopelvimetry / pelvicephalometry : measurement of the diameters
of the head of the fetus in relation to those of the mother's pelvis
preaurale : a cephalometric landmark, the
point at which a straight line from the postaurale,
perpendicular to the long axis of the auricle, meets the base of the auricle.
postaurale : a cephalometric landmark,
the most posterior point on the helix of the ear.
height, length-height or altitudinal index : the relation of the
cranial height to the cranial length
auricular index : the relation of the width to the height of the
auricle of the ear.
biauricular line : a line passing over the vertex
of the skull from one acoustic meatus to the other.
auriculoparietal index : the ratio of the breadth of the skull between
the auricular points to its greatest breadth.
auriculovertical index : the ratio of the height of the skull superior
to the auricular point to its greatest height.
basilar index : the ratio of the distance between the basion
and the alveolar point to the total length of the skull.
cephalic index : 100 times the maximal head breadth divided by the
maximal head length.
cephalo-orbital index : 100 times the capacity of the cranium divided
by the capacity of the 2 orbits.
cephalospinal index : the ratio of the area of the foramen magnum
in square meters and the cranial capacity in cubic centimeters.
cerebral index : the ratio of the greatest transverse to the greatest
anteroposterior diameter of the cranial cavity.
coronofrontal index : the ratio of the greatest frontal to
the greatest coronal breadth of the head.
cranial index : 100 times the maximal breadth of the skull divided
by its length.
facial index : the relation of the length of the face to its width,
obtained by multiplying by 100 the bizygomatic width and dividing the product
by the distance from the ophryon to the alveolar point.
alveolar or gnathic index : the degree of prominence of the upper
jaw, expressed as a percentage of the distance from basion
to nasion
length-breadth index : the breadth of the skull expressed as a percentage
of its length.
length-height index : the height of the skull expressed as a percentage
of its length.
maxilloalveolar index : the distance between the 2 most lateral
points on the external surface of the upper alveolar margin, usually opposite
the middle of the second permanent molar teeth, divided by the maxilloalveolar
length.
morphologic face index : 100 times the distance from the nasion
to the gnathion divided by the bizygomatic breadth.
nasal index : 100 times the maximal breadth of the nasal aperture
divided by the nasion-nasospinale height.
orbital index (of Broca) : 100 times the height of the opening of
the orbit, divided by its width.
palatal, palatine or palatomaxillary index : a numerical expression
of the ratio of various proportions of the palate obtained by multiplying
the palatal breadth by 100 and dividing the product by the palatal length
(brachystaphyline or leptostaphyline)
physiognomonic upper face index : 100 times the distance from the
nasion
to the stomion divided by the bizygomatic breadth.
vertical index : 100 times the height of the skull divided by the
length of the skull.
zygomaticoauricular index : the ratio between the zygomatic and
auricular diameters of the skull.
cant of mandible : the angle formed by the intersection of the mandibular
(gonion-gnathion) plane with
the sella-nasion or Frankfort plane
cranial diameters : distances measured between certain landmarks
of the skull, such as the
biparietal diameter (BPD) : the
distance between the 2 parietal eminences.
bitemporal diameter : the distance
between the 2 extremities of the coronal suture.
cervicobregmatic diameter : the distance between the center of the
anterior fontanel and the junction of the neck with the floor of the mouth.
frontomental diameter : the distance from the forehead to the chin.
fronto-occipital or occipitofrontal diameter : the distance from
the external occipital protuberance to the most prominent midpoint of the
frontal bone
mento-occipital or occipitomental diameter : the distance from the
external occipital protuberance to the most prominent midpoint of the chin
suboccipitobregmatic diameter : the distance from the lowest posterior
point of the occiput to the center of the anterior fontanel
craniometric diameter : any line connecting 2 craniometric points
of the same name.
inferior longitudinal diameter : the distance from the foramen cecum
to the internal occipital protuberance.
mentoparietal diameter : the distance from the chin to the vertex
of the skull.
parietal or posterotransverse diameter : the distance between tuberosities
of parietal bones
sagittal diameter : the distance from the glabella
to the external occipital protuberance
inion : the most prominent point of the external
occipital protuberance
glabella : 1. the smooth area on the frontal
bone between the superciliary arches. 2. the most prominent point
in the median plane between the eyebrows; used as an anthropometric landmark.
precentral line : a line on the head, extending from a point midway
between the inion and glabella
downward and forward
anterotransverse or temporal diameter (of the cranium) : the distance
between the tips of the alae magnae
auriculobregmatic line : a line from the auricular point to the
bregma
bisacromial diameter : the distance between the outermost points
of the shoulder.
vertebromammary diameter : the anteroposterior diameter of the chest.
brachial index : 100 times the length of the arm from the head of
the radius to the styloid process divided by the length of the arm from
the acromion to the head of the radius.
Brugsch index : 100 times the chest circumference divided by body
length.
femorohumeral index : 100 times the length of the humerus divided
by the length of the femur.
forearm-hand index : 100 times the length of the hand divided by
the length of the forearm.
Fourmentin's thoracic index : the number obtained by multiplying
the transverse diameter of the thorax by 100 and dividing by the anteroposterior
diameter.
habitus index : 100 times the sum of the chest girth and the abdominal
girth divided by the stature
hand index : 100 times the breadth of the hand divided by the length
of the hand.
intermembral index : 100 times the length of the humerus plus radius
divided by the length of the femur plus tibia.
Becker-Lennhoff's index : the number obtained by dividing 100 times
the distance from the sternal notch to the symphysis pubis by the greatest
circumference of the abdomen.
lower leg?foot index : 100 times the length of the foot divided
by the length of the lower leg.
metacarpal index : the average of the figures obtained by dividing
the lengths of the right second, third, fourth, and fifth metacarpal bones
by their respective breadths at the exact midpoint; stated to range normally
between 5.4 and 7.9. A value above 8.4 is diagnostic of arachnodactyly.
morphological index : the volume of the trunk divided by the length
of the limbs.
radiohumeral index : 100 times the maximal length of the radius
divided by the maximal length of the humerus.
sacral index : 100 times the breadth of the sacrum divided by the
length.
thoracic index : the ratio of the anteroposterior diameter of the
thorax to the transverse diameter.
tibiofemoral index : 100 times the length of the tibia divided by
the length of the femur.
dolichoknemic : having a tibiofemoral index > 83
tibioradial index : 100 times the length of the radius divided by
the length of the tibia.
trunk index : 100 times the bi-acromial breadth divided by the sitting
suprasternal height.
siqua [coined from L. sidentis altitudinis quadratio, the
square of the sitting height] : Pirquet's unit for calculating the area
of the absorptive surface of the intestine; it is the square of the sitting
height (in centimeters).
Hueter's line : a straight line connecting the medial epicondyle
of the humerus with the top of the olecranon when the arm is extended
Moyer's line : a line from the middle of the body of the S3 vertebra
to a point midway between the anterior superior iliac spines.
Robson's line : an imaginary line drawn from the nipple to the umbilicus
Meyer's line : the axial line of the big toe which if extended passes
through the center of the heel if shoes have never been worn
Bibliography
Arthur C.Guyton, John E.Hall : Textbook of Medical Physiology, by
W.B.Saunders Co.
Robert M.Berne, Matthew N.Levy Physiology by Mosby-Year Book
Inc.
Bloom & Fawcett Don W.- A textbook of Histology XII edition
1994, by Chapman & Hall, New York, USA