PROSTHESES : an artificial substitute for a missing body part, such as an arm or leg, eye or tooth, used for functional or cosmetic reasons, or both.

Table of contents :


  • bone prostheses
  • bionic restoration of movement
  • blood substitutes
  • saliva substitutes
  • artificial tears
  • vitreous substitutes
  • tear substitutes
  • heart prostheses
  • ventricular reshaping
  • mechanical circulatory support
  • cardiac valves
  • closure of patent foramen ovale
  • vascular grafts
  • stenting
  • intravascular stents
  • for aneurysms
  • vena cava filters
  • artificial larynx
  • penile implants
  • hearing aids
  • cochlear implants
  • bionic restoration of movement
  • artificial tendons
  • biofuel cells
  • artificial muscles
  • see also :
  • extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)
  • renal replacement therapy (RRT)
  • bioartificial kidney
  • bioartificial liver


  • Materials :
  • metallic prostheses : cobalt and chromium alloys, stainless steel, titanium, polyvinyl, polyuretane or polyesters (for soft tissues), tantalum or acrylic resins (for bony structures)
  • organic prostheses : polyethylene, teflon, dacron, nylon, polytef / polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) (a polymer of tetrafluoroethylene, used as a surgical implant material for prostheses, such as artificial vessels and orbital floor implants and for many applications in skeletal augmentation and skeletal fixation. Also used widely in industry, e.g., as an antistick coating for cooking utensils), silicone (for breast, testicular, and outer ear)
  • biological prostheses :
  • Thrombotic threshold velocity (TTV) : the minimum velocity of blood flow through a vascular graft or prosthesis below which thrombogenicity would begin along the intimal surface; variables affecting it include lumen diameter and type of material the graft or prosthesis is made of
    Immune response is suppressed by polymers with the following characteristics : These properties induce apoptosis in 50% of sticking macrophages and survivor ones are unable to create scar tissue, improving lasting of the prosthesis. Historical highlights in bionics : Web resources : Tissue engineering.net
    Associations : Tissue Engineering Society International (TESI)
    Journals : Tissue engineering

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