Aedes aegypti. Zika Vírus. Dengue. Chikungunya.

Publicações recentes em revistas científicas

Fontes utilizadas: PUBMED, Web of Science, SciELO, LILACS

Período: 15 Dez 2015 a 05 Jan 2016


Zika virus: a previously slow pandemic spreads rapidly through the Americas.

Gatherer D, Kohl A

J Gen Virol. 2015 Dec

Zika virus (Flaviviridae) is an emerging arbovirus. Spread by Aedes mosquitoes, it was first discovered in Uganda in 1947, and later in humans elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, arriving in south-east Asia at latest by mid-20th-century. In the 21st century, it spread across the Pacific Islands reaching South America around 2014. Since then it has spread rapidly northwards reaching Mexico in November 2015. Its clinical profile is that of a dengue-like febrile illness, but recently associations with Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly have appeared. The final geographical range and ultimate clinical impact of Zika virus are still a matter for speculation.

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Zika virus outbreaks in Asia and South America

Brown C

CMAJ. 2015 Dec 22

An emerging mosquito-borne virus with outbreaks in Southeast Asia and South America is raising concern because of a spike in microcephaly in newborns in affected areas. Zika virus is also being linked to a rise in Guillain-Barré syndrome. But more data are needed before these outcomes can be definitively linked to the virus, say experts. In the meantime, Canadian physicians may see cases in patients arriving or returning from these regions.

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Zika virus in Brazil and the danger of infestation by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes.

Marcondes CB, Ximenes MF

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2015 Dec 22

Zika virus, already widely distributed in Africa and Asia, was recently reported in two Northeastern Brazilian: State of Bahia and State of Rio Grande do Norte, and one Southeastern: State of São Paulo. This finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Brazil. The pathology and epidemiology, including the distribution and vectors associated with Zika virus, are reviewed. This review is focused on viruses transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes, including dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, and yellow fever virus, to emphasize the risks of occurrence for these arboviruses in Brazil and neighboring countries. Other species of Aedes (Stegomyia) are discussed, emphasizing their involvement in arbovirus transmission and the possibility of adaptation to environments modified by human activities and introduction in Brazil.

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An obscure mosquito-borne disease goes global

Enserink M

Science. 2015:350(6264):1012-1013

Seven years ago, after returning from a field trip to Senegal, medical entomo logists Brian Foy and Kevin Kobylinski came down with a serious disease so obscure that no one could find out what it was. The duo, both at Colorado State University, Fort Collins, had a rash, fatigue, headaches, and swollen and painful joints, but they tested negative for known infectious agents. Both recovered, and they might never have known the cause of their illness if, more than a year later on another African trip, Foy hadn’t run into medical entomologist Andrew Haddow, then at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston. In 1947, Haddow’s grandfather was working in Africa, where he had helped discover a mosquitoborne virus named Zika. The symptoms it caused seemed to match Foy’s. Haddow helped arrange for Foy and Kobylinski to get tested for antibodies. Bingo: They had been infected with Zika.

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Outbreak of Exanthematous Illness Associated with Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue Viruses, Salvador, Brazil

Cardoso CW, Paploski IA, Kikuti M, Rodrigues MS, Silva MM, Campos GS et all

Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Dec;21(12):2274-6.

To the Editor: Zika virus (ZIKV) has been recognized as an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus since outbreaks were reported from Yap Island in 2007, French Polynesia in 2013, and Cook Island and New Caledonia in 2014. It has joined dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) as global public health threats. ZIKV infection typically causes a self-limited dengue-like illness characterized by exanthema, low-grade fever, conjunctivitis, and arthralgia, and an increase in rates of Guillain-Barré syndrome have been observed during ZIKV outbreaks.In Brazil, clusters of cases of acute exanthematous illness have been reported from various regions since late 2014, and in April 2015, ZIKV was identified as the etiologic agent (6). In May 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health recognized circulation of ZIKV in Brazil. We report epidemiologic findings for an ongoing outbreak of acute exanthematous illness in the population of Salvador, the third largest city in Brazil.

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Genetic deviation in geographically close populations of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae): influence of environmental barriers in South India.

Vadivalagan C, Karthika P, Murugan K, Panneerselvam C, Paulpandi M, Madhiyazhagan P et al

Parasitol Res. 2015 Dec 2

Mosquitoes are vectors of devastating pathogens and parasites, causing millions of deaths every year. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. Recently, dengue transmission has strongly increased in urban and semiurban areas, becoming a major international public health concern. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) is a primary vector of dengue. Shedding light on genetic deviation in A. aegypti populations is of crucial importance to fully understand their molecular ecology and evolution. In this research, haplotype and genetic analyses were conducted using individuals of A. aegypti from 31 localities in the north, southeast, northeast and central regions of Tamil Nadu (South India). The mitochondrial DNA region of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) gene was used as marker for the analyses. Thirty-one haplotypes sequences were submitted to GenBank and authenticated. The complete haplotype set included 64 haplotypes from various geographical regions clustered into three groups (lineages) separated by three fixed mutational steps, suggesting that the South Indian Ae. aegypti populations were pooled and are linked with West Africa, Columbian and Southeast Asian lineages. The genetic and haplotype diversity was low, indicating reduced gene flow among close populations of the vector, due to geographical barriers such as water bodies. Lastly, the negative values for neutrality tests indicated a bottle-neck effect and supported for low frequency of polymorphism among the haplotypes. Overall, our results add basic knowledge to molecular ecology of the dengue vector A. aegypti, providing the first evidence for multiple introductions of Ae. aegypti populations from Columbia and West Africa in South India.

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Cytokine kinetics of Zika virus-infected patients from acute to reconvalescent phase

Tappe D, Pérez-Girón JV, Zammarchi L, Rissland J, Ferreira DF, Jaenisch T et al.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2015 Dec 24.

Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus currently causing large epidemics in the Pacific Ocean region and Brazil. Clinically, Zika fever resembles dengue fever, but is less severe. Whereas the clinical syndrome and laboratory diagnostic procedures have been described, little attention was paid to the immunology of the disease and its possible use for clinical follow-up of patients. Here, we investigate the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of Zika fever in travelers returning from Asia, the Pacific, and Brazil. Polyfunctional T cell activation (Th1, Th2, Th9, and Th17 response) was seen during the acute phase characterized by respective cytokine level increases, followed by a decrease in the reconvalescent phase.

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Zika virus and the never-ending story of emerging pathogens and transfusion medicine.

Marano G, Pupella S, Vaglio S, Liumbruno GM, Grazzini G.

Blood Transfus. 2015 Nov 5:1-6. doi: 10.2450/2015.0066-15.

In the last few years, the transfusion medicine community has been paying special attention to emerging vector-borne diseases transmitted by arboviruses. Zika virus is the latest of these pathogens and is responsible for major outbreaks in Africa, Asia and, more recently, in previously infection-naïve territories of the Pacific area. Many issues regarding this emerging pathogen remain unclear and require further investigation. National health authorities have adopted different prevention strategies. The aim of this review article is to discuss the currently available, though limited, information and the potential impact of this virus on transfusion medicine.

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Blood safety and zoonotic emerging pathogens: now it’s the turn of Zika virus!

Franchini M, Velati C

Blood Transfus. 2015 Nov 5:1. doi: 10.2450/2015.0187-15.

Zika virus is a flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae, which derives its name from the Zika forest in Uganda where it was initially identified in 1947 in the Rhesus macaque population1,2. Like other viruses transmitted by arthropod vectors (e.g., West Nile, Dengue and Chikungunya viruses), in the great majority of cases Zika virus infection causes an asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic flu-like disease3-5. There are essentially two reasons for the growing interest from health authorities and the scientific community towards this emerging viral infection […].

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Zika Virus: A New Chapter in the History of Medicine

Brito C

Acta Med Port. 2015 Nov-Dec;28(6):679-68

In Brazil, since November 2014 and mainly in the beginning of 2015, the Northeast states reported a great outbreak of a new exanthematic disease. The clinical condition, characterized by an early onset exanthema,
with no or little fever, accompanied by arthralgia, articular edema and conjunctivitis, led the infectologist Kleber Luz to consider the hypothesis of Zika virus. This was confirmed in
April 2015 through PCR performed on eight of the 25 blood samples from suspected cases in Bahia, and subsequently in eight of the 21 cases in Rio Grande do Norte. 2,3
The outbreak presented a high rate of attack, with thousands people affected overcrowding the public and private emergency services, although it was not measured by an official notification system. Since this was not a disease of mandatory notification, even in cases suspected of Zika, doctors of the services were oriented by the health inspection surveillance to notify as Dengue.

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Entry routes for Zika virus in Brazil after 2014 world cup: New possibilities.


Salvador FS, Fujita DM.

Travel Med Infect Dis. 2015 Nov 14. pii: S1477-8939(15)00173-8

In the beginning of 2015, several cases of Dengue and Chikungunya virus infections were reported in Brazil. Dengue epidemics are located in the states of São Paulo (637,029 confirmed cases), Minas Gerais (166,360 confirmed cases), Goiás (121,501 confirmed cases), Pernambuco (68,510 confirmed cases), Ceará (59,074 confirmed cases), Rio de Janeiro (49,480 confirmed cases), Paraná (46,694 confirmed cases), Bahia (42,476 confirmed cases), Rio Grande do Norte (21,194 confirmed cases), Mato Grosso do Sul (18,663 confirmed cases), Paraíba (18,018 confirmed cases), Espírito Santo (16,477 confirmed cases), Alagoas (13,846 confirmed cases) e Mato Grosso (13,700 confirmed cases). For Chikungunya virus infection, the state of Bahia appears as first in number of confirmed cases (7820), followed by Amapá (1070) and Federal District (194). Zika virus infections presented clinical pictures very similar to dengue, and the number of cases reported officially are low, provided by problems in detection as it occurs in a dengue virus area and co -infection of these viruses is not uncommon. The strongest hypothesis of the introduction of Zika virus in Brazil has bought by African travelers during the 2014 World Cup has virus transmission by asymptomatic patients, aside to significant increase of 132% in international tourists flow (June/2014 compared to June/2013) to the country. But the circulating virus in Brazil was identified as Asian genotype through phylogenetic analyzes of the envelope region in the two cases from the state of Bahia, the area with highest number of confirmed cases, and due to Zika genotype found, alternative routes for new external entrance must be studied, allowing better comprehension of the virus circulation in the country.



First detection of autochthonous Zika virus transmission in a HIV-infected

Calvet GA, Filippis AM, Mendonça MC, Sequeira PC, Siqueira AM, Veloso VG, Nogueira RM, Brasil P.

J Clin Virol. 2016 Jan;74:1-3.

Since May 2015, Brazil’s Ministry of Health has reported autochthonous transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in some states of the country. Simultaneous circulation of Dengue, Chikungunya and ZIKV in the country hinder both the diagnosis and the therapeutic approach of patients seeking care with acute febrile illnesses especially in patients with comorbidities. The association between HIV infection and endemic diseases has been described especially in tropical regions with varying levels of complications, although there has been no report of ZIKV in HIV-infected patients. We report the first autochthonous case of laboratory confirmed ZIKV infection in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He evolved with only mild symptoms and recovered well without major laboratory abnormalities. Phylogenetic analysis of the ZIKV detected in the patient sera clustered within the Asian clade. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that Zika virus co-infection is reported in a HIV-infected patient.

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Zika virus infections imported to Italy: Clinical, immunological and virological findings, and public health implications

Zammarchi L, Stella G, Mantella A, Bartolozzi D, Mantella A et al.

Case report

J Clin Virol. 2015 Feb;63:32-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2014.12.005

We report the first two cases of laboratory confirmed Zika virus (ZIKV) infections imported into Italy from French Polynesia. Both patients presented with low grade fever, malaise, conjunctivitis, myalgia, arthralgia, ankle oedema, and axillary and inguinal lymphadenopathy. One patient showed leukopenia with relative monocytosis and thrombocytopenia. The diagnosis was based on ZIKV seroconversion in both cases and on ZIKV RNA detection in one patient from acute serum sample. Sera from both patients exhibited cross-reactivity with dengue virus antigens. Our immunological analysis demonstrated that recovery from ZIKV infection is associated with restoration of normal numbers of immune cells in the periphery as well as with normal function of antigen-presenting cells. ZIKV is an emerging arbovirus, which has recently spread extensively in tourist destinations on several West Pacific islands. Returning viremic travelers may ignite autochthonous infections in countries like Italy, which are infested by Aedes albopictus, a suitable vector for ZIKV. The role of clinicians is crucial and includes early diagnosis and timely notification of public health authorities in order to quickly implement adequate focal vector control measurements.

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Evidence of vertical transmission and co-circulation of chikungunya and dengue viruses in field populations of Aedes aegypti (L.) from Guerrero, Mexico.

Dzul-Manzanilla F, Martínez NE, Cruz-Nolasco M, Gutiérrez-Castro C, López-Damián L, Ibarra-López J, Jaimes A et al.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2015 Dec 28.

Background: We report results of the entomo-virological surveillance system in Aedes aegypti local populations performed by the Ministry of Health of Guerrero. Methods: Indoor-adult Ae. aegypti collected at Acapulco, Zihuatanejo, Coyuca de Benitez and Atoyac de Alvarez (dry season, 2015) were processed for dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) using real-time RT-PCR. Results: We identified different seroptypes of DENV (2, 3 and 4), CHIKV and their co-circulation in field-caught mosquitoes across a significant geographic area. Pools of males were positive for CHIKV and DENV 3 and 4 suggesting vertical transmission. Entomo-virological Surveillance in Guerrero has identified early circulation of CHIKV and DENV and provided a trigger for timely and focalized vector control actions.

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Fitness of wAlbB Wolbachia Infection in Aedes aegypti: Parameter Estimates in an Outcrossed Background and Potential for Population Invasion.

Axford JK, Ross PA, Yeap HL, Callahan AG, Hoffmann AA

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015 Dec 28. pii: 15-0608.

Wolbachia endosymbionts are potentially useful tools for suppressing disease transmission by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes because Wolbachia can interfere with the transmission of dengue and other viruses as well as causing deleterious effects on their mosquito hosts. Most recent research has focused on the wMel infection, but other infections also influence viral transmission and may spread in natural populations. Here, we focus on the wAlbB infection in an Australian outbred background and show that this infection has many features that facilitate its invasion into natural populations including strong cytoplasmic incompatibility, a lack of effect on larval development, an equivalent mating success to uninfected males and perfect maternal transmission fidelity. On the other hand, the infection has deleterious effects when eggs are held in a dried state, falling between wMel and the more virulent wMelPop Wolbachia strains. The impact of this infection on lifespan also appears to be intermediate, consistent with the observation that this infection has a titer in adults between wMel and wMelPop. Population cage experiments indicate that the wAlbB infection establishes in cages when introduced at a frequency of 22%, suggesting that this strain could be successfully introduced into populations and subsequently persist and spread.

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Larvicidal activity of catechin isolated from Leucas aspera against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

Elumalai D, Hemavathi M, Hemalatha P, Deepaa CV, Kaleena PK

Parasitol Res. 2015 Dec 28.

Vector control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of plant origin my serve as an alternative biocontrol technique in the future. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of fractions and compounds from the whole-plant methanol extracts of Leucas aspera on the fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The larvae were exposed to fractions with concentrations ranging from 1.25, 2.25, 5, 10, and 20 ppm and isolated compounds. After 24 h exposure, larval mortality was assessed. Among the eight fractions, four from hexane extractions showed potent larvicidal activity against tested mosquito species at 20 ppm concentration. The isolated compound catechin showed pronounced larvicidal activity at very low concentrations. The LC50 and LC90 values of catechin were 3.05 and 8.25 ppm against Ae. aegypti, 3.44 and 8.89 ppm against An. stephensi, and 3.76 and 9.79 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The isolated compound was subjected to spectral analyses (GC-MS, FTIR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR) to elucidate the structure and to compare with spectral data literature.

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Predicting Wolbachia potential to knock down dengue virus transmission.

Lambrechts L.

Ann Transl Med. 2015 Nov;3(19):288. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.2305-5839.2015.09.33.

Releasing mosquitoes infected with the intracellular bacteria Wolbachia is a candidate strategy for dengue control that has recently advanced to field-testing. A critical next step is to evaluate the impact of this strategy on dengue epidemiology. A recent study by Ferguson and colleagues presents a mathematical framework to predict the likely effect of mosquitoes carrying Wolbachia on dengue virus transmission. Fitting the mathematical model to empirical data obtained with Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes experimentally challenged with viremic blood from dengue patients indicates that dengue virus transmission could be reduced by a degree that would have a significant impact on public health.

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Effect of isodillapiole on the expression of the insecticide resistance genes GSTE7 and CYP6N12 in Aedes aegypti from central Amazonia.

Lima VS, Pinto AC, Rafael MS

Genet Mol Res. 2015 Dec 11;14(4):16728-35

The yellow fever mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti is the main vector of dengue arbovirus and other arboviruses. Dengue prevention measures for the control of A. aegypti involve mainly the use of synthetic insecticides. The constant use of insecticides has caused resistance in this mosquito. Alternative studies on plant extracts and their products have been conducted with the aim of controlling the spread of the mosquito. Dillapiole is a compound found in essential oils of the plant Piper aduncum (Piperaceae) which has been effective as a biopesticide against A. aegypti. Isodillapiole is a semisynthetic substance obtained by the isomerization of dillapiole. In the present study, isodillapiole was evaluated for its potential to induce differential expression of insecticide resistance genes (GSTE7 and CYP6N12) in 3rd instar larvae of A. aegypti. These larvae were exposed to this compound at two concentrations (20 and 40 μg/mL) for 4 h during four generations (G1, G2, G3, and G4). Quantitative RT-PCR was used to assess the expression of GSTE7 and CYP6N12 genes. GSTE7 and CYP6N12 relative expression levels were higher at 20 than at 40 μg/mL and varied among generations. The decrease in GSTE7 and CYP6N12 expression levels at the highest isodillapiole concentration suggests that larvae may have suffered from metabolic stress, revealing a potential alternative product in the control of A. aegypti.

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Aedes aegypti eggs oviposited on water surface collected from field ovitraps in Nova Iguaçu City, Brazil.

Wermelinger ED, Ferreira AP, Carvalho RW, Silva AA, Benigno CV

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2015 Dec;48(6):770-2.

Introduction: Aedes aegypti eggs can be collected from the water surface. Methods:

Aedes aegypti oviposition from 97 field ovitraps was studied. Results: Of the 16,016 eggs collected, 11,439 were obtained from paddles in ovitraps and 4,577 from water. Further, 89 (91.8%) traps contained eggs on water and 22 (22.7%) traps contained eggs only on water. Conclusions: In field traps, Aedes aegypti females usually oviposit some eggs on water surface suggesting that they might also oviposit on water of some natural breeding, and this possibility needs to be investigated. Eggs oviposited on water need to be considered for collecting trap data.

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Interspecific Cross-Mating Between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Laboratory Strains: Implication of Population Density on Mating Behaviors.

Marcela P, Hassan AA, Hamdan A, Dieng H, Kumara TK

J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2015 Dec;31(4):313-20.

Mating behavior between Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus, established colony strains were examined under laboratory conditions (30-cm(3) screened cages) for 5 consecutive days. The effect of selected male densities (30, 20, 10) and female density (20) on the number of swarming, mating pairs, eggs produced, and inseminated females were evaluated. Male densities significantly increased swarming behavior, mating pairs, and egg production of heterospecific females, but female insemination was reduced. Aedes aegypti males mate more readily with heterospecific females than do Ae. albopictus males. The current study suggests that Ae. aegypti males were not species-specific in mating, and if released into the field as practiced in genetically modified mosquito techniques, they may mate with both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females, hence reducing populations of both species by producing infertile eggs.

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The role of octopamine receptor agonists in the synergistic toxicity of certain insect growth regulators (IGRs) in controlling Dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito

Ahmed MA, Vogel CF

Acta Trop. 2015 Dec 7;155:1-5.

The synergistic action of octopamine receptor agonists (OR agonists) on many insecticide classes (e.g., organophosphorus, pyrethroids, and neonicotinoids) on Aedes aegypti L. has been reported recently. An investigation of OR agonist’s effect on insect growth regulators (IGRs) was undertaken to provide a better understanding of the mechanism of action. Based on the IGR bioassay, pyriproxyfen was the most potent IGR insecticide tested (EC50=0.0019ng/ml). However, the lethal toxicity results indicate that diafenthiuron was the most potent insecticide (LC50=56ng/cm2) on A. aegypti adults after 24h of exposure. The same trend was true after 48 and 72h of exposure. Further, the synergistic effects of OR agonists plus amitraz (AMZ) or chlordimeform (CDM) was significant on adults. Among the tested synergists, AMZ increased the potency of the selected IGRs on adults the greatest. As results, OR agonists were largely synergistic with the selected IGRs. OR agonists enhanced the lethal toxicity of IGRs, which is a valuable new tool in the field of A. aegypti control. However, further field experiments need to be done to understand the unique potential role of OR agonists and their synergistic action on IGRs.

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Dengue Knowledge and Preventive Practices in Iquitos, Peru.

Paz-Soldán VA, Morrison AC, Cordova Lopez JJ, Lenhart A, Scott TW, Elder JP et al

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015 Dec 9;93(6):1330-7.

As part of a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate insecticide-treated curtains for dengue prevention in Iquitos, Peru, we surveyed 1,333 study participants to examine knowledge and reported practices associated with dengue and its prevention. Entomological data from 1,133 of these households were linked to the survey. Most participants knew that dengue was transmitted by mosquito bite (85.6%), but only few (18.6%) knew that dengue vectors bite during daytime. Most commonly recognized dengue symptoms were fever (86.6%), headache (76.4%), and muscle/joint pain (67.9%). Most commonly reported correct practices for mosquito control were cleaning homes (61.6%), using insecticide sprays (23%), and avoiding having standing water at home (12.3%). Higher education was associated with higher knowledge about dengue, including transmission and vector control. Higher socioeconomic status was associated with increased reported use of preventive practices requiring money expenditure. We were less likely to find Aedes aegypti eggs, larvae, or pupae in households that had 5-year-old children at home. Although dengue has been transmitted in Iquitos since the 1990s and the Regional Health Authority routinely fumigates households, treats domestic water containers with larvicide, and issues health education messages through mass media, knowledge of dengue transmission and household practices for prevention could be improved.

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Dengue epidemics: knowledge perhaps is the only key to success.

Ramzan M, Ansar A, Nadeem S.

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2015 Apr-Jun;27(2):402-6.

Background: Dengue fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever is a re-emerging vector-borne viral illness that is endemic in Tropics and poses a major public health burden in many countries of South East Asia, The objectives of the study were to correlate the dengue fever knowledge and preventive practices with age, gender, education, occupation and marital status of people of Wah Cantt. and to determine the association between knowledge level and preventive practices. Methods: This cross-sectional Survey was done in Wah Cantt from July to Dec 2011. Three hundred and sixty-three participants were selected through Stratified Random Sampling. Data on the knowledge and practice of the participants was collected by using structured questionnaire by the researcher. Knowledge and preventive practices were given scores on each correct response and participants were categorized into different groups according to their scores, i.e., excellent, good, poor and negligible. Associations were computed using Chi-square and Bivariate Correlation. p-value 0.05 was taken significant.

Results: Mean age was 35.7 +/- 12.1 years. More participants were male (64.5%). Male sex, old age, employment without specific qualification and being parents had significant associations with both levels of knowledge and preventive practices. Level of knowledge was highly associated with levels of practice X2=79.1, df=9, p=0.000 and r=0.464 and p=0.000. Conclusion:

The knowledge and preventive practices of people are related to their gender, marital status, age and occupation. Unexpectedly education has no association with knowledge or better preventive behaviour. Preventive practices get better where knowledge levels are more, emphasizing the need of community education programmes.

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Zika virus: following the path of dengue and chikungunya?

Musso D, Cao-Lormeau VM, Gubler DJ

Lancet. 2015 Jul 18;386(9990):243-4

On May 7, 2015, the Pan American Health Organization issued an alert about potential Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission in northeast Brazil.1 This has now been confirmed with wide spread of the disease, underscoring the potential for ZIKV to spread globally, similar to dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses.

ZIKV is an emerging arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) that was first isolated from a Rhesus monkey in Uganda, in 1947. This arbovirus is related to DENV and they have similar epidemiology and transmission cycle in urban environments. Until recently, only sporadic human ZIKV infections were reported.

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A report on the outbreak of Zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014.

Tognarelli J, Ulloa S, Villagra E, Lagos J, Aguayo C, Fasce R, Parra B, Mora J, Becerra N, Lagos N, Vera L, Olivares B,

Arch Virol. 2015 Nov 26

Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 % nt and 100 % aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

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First report of autochthonous transmission of Zika virus in Brazil

Zanluca C, Melo VCA, Mosimann ALP et al

Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 2015. 110(4).

In the early 2015, several cases of patients presenting symptoms of mild fever, rash, conjunctivitis and arthralgia were reported in the northeastern Brazil. Although all patients lived in a dengue endemic area, molecular and serological diagnosis for dengue resulted negative. Chikungunya virus infection was also discarded. Subsequently, Zika virus (ZIKV) was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from the sera of eight patients and the result was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the ZIKV identified belongs to the Asian clade. This is the first report of ZIKV infection in Brazil.


Potential Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus

Musso D, Roche C, Robin E, Nhan T, Teissier A, Cao-Lormeau VM

Emerg Infect Dis. 2015; 21(2): 359–361.

In December 2013, during a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in French Polynesia, a patient in Tahiti sought treatment for hematospermia, and ZIKV was isolated from his semen. ZIKV transmission by sexual intercourse has been previously suspected. This observation supports the possibility that ZIKV could be transmitted sexually.

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Now is the time for the Zika virus/

El turno ahora es para el virus Zika

Mattar VS, Gonzalez, Marco

Rev. MVZ Cordoba. 2015.20(2): 4511-4512

In April 1947 it was discovered through an experimental animal model a jungle fever. During the experiment, monkeys (macaques) were placed in cages and left exposed in the Zika forest (Uganda); one of the monkeys became ill and died. They filtered postmortem monkey tissues were inoculated into mouse brain and from there, a virus called Zika (ZIKV) was cultured. In 1948 ZIKV was also isolated from mosquitoes Aedes africanus captured in the Zika forest. In 1956 ZIKV transmission in mosquitoes Aedes aegypti was found, as well as a monkey. Between 1968 and 1975, ZIKV was subsequently isolated from humans (Nigeria); 40% of those patients analized by PRNT shown antibodies […].


Isolation and Characterization of Midgut Lectin From Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae)

Ayaad TH, Al-Akeel RK, Olayan E

Braz Arch Biol. 2015 Dez. 58(6): 905-912.

The present investigation deals with the isolation and characterization of a lectin from Aedes aegypti (Ae aegypti) female mid gut extract that agglutinates various mammalian red blood cells (RBCs) such as human three groups A, B, and O (RH+), mouse, rat, guinea-pig, sheep and goat erythrocytes. The highest activity of both crude and isolated mid gut lectins were detected against sheep RBCs. Using (NH4)2 SO4 fractionation, ion-exchange and mannose-CNBr-Sepharose 6B affinity chromatography techniques, Ae. aegypti midgut lectin (Aelec) was purified to homogeneity.Isoelectric focusing (IEF) and reducing SDS/PAGE revealed that the isolated mid gut lectin had isoelectric point (PI) of 5.90, and subunits approximate molecular weights of 35.50 and 27.35 KDa.

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Aspectos físico-químicos da água de criadouros de Aedes aegypti em ambiente urbano e as implicações para o controle da dengue

Arduino MB, Ávila GO

Rev Patol Trop. 2015; 44(1):89-100.

O dengue é uma doença infecciosa cujo agente é um arbovírus que tem quatro sorotipos. Apesar da existência de vacina em fase experimental e com resultados promissores, ela ainda não está disponível para a população em geral. Portanto, o controle é baseado na redução do vetor pela eliminação de criadouros do mosquito. O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar os tipos de criadouros e a água neles contida, visando aumentar o conhecimento sobre os recipientes colonizados por esta espécie e contribuir para o aprimoramento das ações de controle. Em 14 meses, entre outubro e abril de 2003 a 2005, foram coletadas larvas e pupas de culicídeos e aferidos o volume, o oxigênio dissolvido (OD),o pH, a condutividade elétrica e a temperatura da água dos recipientes. Foram também registradas as substâncias presentes na água dos recipientes que continham culicídeos por meio de verificação visual. Observou-se elevada taxa de variação de todos os parâmetros mensurados, assim como o encontro de imaturos em água com resíduo de óleo, ferrugem, tinta, sal e grande concentração de matéria orgânica. Tais resultados evidenciaram que o criadouro de Ae. aegypti não é mais o clássico“recipiente com água limpa”. Constatou-se, portanto, a necessidade de identificar e inspecionar novos recipientes antes não ocupados por esta espécie. Estes conhecimentos devem ser incluídos no conteúdo de cursos para agentes de saúde e em campanhas e programas de prevenção do dengue como contribuição para o enfrentamento do problema.

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Influence of breeding site availability on the oviposition behaviour of Aedes aegypti

Abreu FV, Morais M, Ribeiro SP, Eiras AE

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2015;110(5):669-676

Despite the importance of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in the transmission of arboviruses, such as yellow fever, Chikungunya fever and dengue fever, some aspects of their behaviour remain unknown. In the present study, the oviposition behaviour of Ae. aegypti females that were exposed to different densities of breeding sites (2, 4, 8 and 16) was evaluated in laboratory and semi-field conditions. The number of breeding sites that were used was proportional to the number available, but tended towards stabilisation. Females used four-six breeding sites on average, with a maximum of 11. A high percentage of eggs was observed in the water, along with the presence of a breeding site termed “favourite”, which received at least 40% of the eggs. The results are discussed in ecological, evolutionary and epidemiological approaches.

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Lecciones aprendidas en el control de Aedes aegypti para afrontar el dengue y la emergencia de chikungunya en Iquitos, Perú

Vilcarromero S, Casanova W, Ampuero J et al.

Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica. 2015;32(1): 172-178

El dengue ha afectado a Iquitos desde 1990 causando varios brotes de gran impacto en la salud pública y por el que se desplegaron grandes esfuerzos para su control temporal. Actualmente, ante la expansión del virus chikungunya en las Américas y la amenaza de la emergencia del virus en Iquitos, reflexionamos a modo de lecciones aprendidas las actividades emprendidas en el área del control vectorial; la vigilancia epidemiológica; el diagnóstico y el manejo clínico durante los periodos de brotes de dengue, de modo que nos permita enfrentar mejor la amenaza de un brote del virus chikunguña en la ciudad más grande de la Amazonía peruana.

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Intervención educativa para el control del dengue en entornos familiares en una comunidad de Colombia

Escudero-Támara e, Villareal-Amaris G

Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica.2015; 32(1): 19-25

Objetivos. Evaluar la eficacia de una intervención educativa para inducir cambios en la conducta de eliminar los criaderos del vector del dengue en familias de una comuna del Municipio de Sincelejo en Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio de una intervención educativa tipo antes y después, con un solo grupo a 54 familias seleccionadas por conveniencia. Se aplicó un programa educativo diseñado con los resultados de un test de conocimiento, una entrevista semiestructurada, guía de observación y los referentes del modelo de adopción de precauciones y aspectos de la teoría de comunicación para impactar en conducta (COMBI). El impacto fue medido mediante proporción de cambios y la prueba de McNemar. Resultados. Posintervención se lograron cambios en los niveles de conocimientos inadecuados sobre el dengue y comportamiento del vector de un 14,8% a un 3,7% (p=0,109), en sus creencias inadecuadas de un 20,4% a un 5,6% (p=0,008) y en la practicas adecuadas del 24 al 87% (p=0,001). Se logró que al final del proceso concada uno de los grupos participantes clasificados el 64,8% se ubicaran en la etapa de acción. Se redujo el número de criaderos intradomiciliarios de Aedes, de un 92,6% a un 35,2% (p=0,001). Conclusiones. La intervención permitió conducir a los participantes a la adherencia de la conducta promovida. Fue útil subdividir a la población, en los que aplican las medidas preventivas y los que solo tienen la intención de realizarlas, porque permite al personal de salud adoptar las acciones de acuerdo a las características de cada grupo.

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Doença pelo vírus Zika: um novo problema emergente nas Américas? 


Vasconcelos PFC

Revista Pan-Amazônica de Saúde, Ananindeua. 2015;6(2):9-10.

[…] O vírus Zika foi isolado, pelo Instituto Adolfo Lutz, de um paciente que recebeu uma transfusão sanguínea contaminada de um doador em período de incubação, e confirmado pelo Instituto Evandro Chagas, bem como de vários pacientes do Rio Grande do Norte e da Bahia. A possibilidade de o vírus Zika ser transmitido por sangue e

hemoderivados levanta a questão da inclusão dessa (e outras?) arbovirose(s) na triagem de doadores de sangue, para uma doença que não dispõe de kits comerciais para diagnóstico laboratorial; nem será menos oneroso o desenvolvimento de métodos moleculares para detecção do Zika, seja em banco de sangue, seja em laboratórios de

saúde pública, exceto nos laboratórios de referência que, há muito tempo, estão sobrecarregados com a demanda da vigilância das outras arboviroses […]. Além disso, o reconhecimento do aumento de casos de comprometimento do sistema nervoso central, em pacientes com doença pelo vírus Zika, pressupõe a necessidade de aprimorar a vigilância de síndromes neurológicas em doentes febris agudos.

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