ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS IN BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH AND PRACTICE : K TO Z

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# ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

- K -

# ABCDEFGHIJ K LMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

K : 1) kilo (k) ; 2) constant (k/K) ; 3) Lys ; 4) cytokeratin ; 5) kelvin (degree) (°K) ; 6) kalium (i.e. : potassium) ; 7) killer (cell) ; 8) ketone (i.e. : G or T in base codes)

Ka : association constant

KAc : potassium acetate

kanR : kanamycin resistance

KARAP : killer activating receptor associated protein

kat : katal (unit)

KB : kinase buffer

KCT : kaolin coagulation time

KD : 1) dissociation constant or distribution coefficient (Kd) ; 2) ketosteroid ; 3) Kennedy's disease ; 4) kinase dead

KDEL : Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu

KDP : Komeda diabetes-prone (rat strain)

KGF : keratinocyte growth factor

KH : K homology

KI : 1) knock in ; 2) inhibition constant (KI)

kilo : 1) 103 ; 2) kilogram

KiMSV : Kirsten murine sarcoma virus

KINH : inhibition constant (KINH)

KIR : 1) K+ inward rectifier (channel) (Kir) ; 2) killer cell Ig-like (or inhibitory) receptor

KKXX : Lys-Lys-Xaa-Xaa

KLH : keyhole limpet hemocyanin

KLP : kinesin-like protein

KLR : killer cell lectin-like receptor

KM : Michaelis constant (KM or Km)

KNF : Koshland, Nemethy and Filmer (model)

KO : knock out

KPBS : potassium PBS

KR : kringle

KRAB : Kruppel associated box

KRB : Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate (buffer)

KrinD : kringle-like domain

KRP : kinesin-related protein

KS : Kaposi's sarcome

KSHV : KS herpesvirus

KSR : kinase suppressor of Ras

KSS : Kearns-Savre syndrome

kt : kinetoplastid

KU : Kunitz

Kv : voltage gated K+ channel

- L -

# ABCDEFGHIJK L MNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

L : 1) ligand; 2) larger form among isoforms derived from an alternatively spliced mRNA (L) ; 3) large (subunit ribosomal protein) ; 4) liter (L) ; 5) Leu ; 6) liver ; 7) long lasting ; 8) LINE ; 9) loose (conformation) ; 10) leukocyte ; 11) light ; 12) lumbar vertebra ; 13) linking number (L)

LA : 1) latex agglutination ; 2) linoleic acid ; 3) left atrium

LAAM : (L)-a-acetyl-methadol

lab : laboratory

LABA : long-acting b2 agonist

LAC : 1) lupus anticoagulant ; 2) LaCrosse (virus)

LacCer : lactosylceramide

LACI : lipoprotein-associated coagulation inhibitor

LACK : Leishmania homolog of mammalian RACK1

LAD : leukocyte adhesion deficit

LAGLI-DADG : Leu-Ala-Gly-Leu-Ile Asp-Ala-Asp-Gly

LAK : lymphokine activated killer

LALN : lung-associated lymph nodes

LAM : 1) lipoarabinomannan ; 2) laminin (domain) (Lam)

LAMP : 1) lysosomal-membrane-associated (glyco)protein ; 2) limbic system-associated membrane protein

LAN : local administrator of the net

LAP : 1) latency associated protein ; 2) Leu-aminopeptidase

L-AP4 : L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutanoic acid

LAR : late allergic response

LARC : liver- and activation-regulated chemokine

LARD : lymphocyte-associated receptor of death

LARS : line analogue rating scales for sedation

LAS : lymphoadenopathy syndrome

LASER : light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation

LAT : 1) linker for activation of T cells ; 2) latency associated transcript

LATS : long acting thyroid stimulator

LAV : lymphoadenopathy associated virus

LAZ : lymphoma-associated zinc finger

LB : 1) left border ; 2) libra (i.e. : pound) (lb) ; 3) Lewy body

LBD : ligand binding domain

LBP : 1) LPS binding protein ; 2) low back pain ; 3) laminin-binding protein

LBPA : lysobiphosphatic acid

LBR : lamin binding protein

LBRF : louse-borne relapsing fever

L-broth : Luria broth

LC : 1) (dynein) light chain, cytoplasmic ; 2) lactacystin ; 3) liquid chromatography ; 4) Langerhans cell

LCA : leukocyte common Ag

LCAT : lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase

LCC : liver-specific CC chemokine

LCCL : Limulus factor C, Coch-5b2 and LGL1 (domain)

Lck : L(YSTRA) c(ell) k(inase)

LCL : lymphoblastoid cell line

LCM : 1) lymphocytic choriomeningitis ; 2) laser capture microdissection

LCMV : lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

LCOS : low cardiac output syndrome

LCP : linkage control package

LCR : 1) locus control region ; 2) ligase chain reaction

LCV : left superior cava vein

LD : 1) linkage disequilibrium ; 2) long-day

LD50 : lethal dose median

LDA : limiting diluition analysis

LDAO : lauryldodecylamine oxide

LDD : Lhermitte-Duclos disease

LDH : lactate dehydrogenase

LDL : low-density lipoprotein

LD-MS : laser-assisted desorption mass spectroscopy

LE : late endosome

LEC : liver-expressed chemokine

LECAM : lectin CAM

LED : light-emitting diode

LEF : lymphocyte enhancer-binding factor

LEHD : Leu-Glu-His-Asp

LEM : leukocyte endogenous mediator

LEP : 1) leptin ; 2) low egg passage (virus)

LES : lower esophageal sphinter

LET . linear energy transfer

LEU : 1) leucine (Leu) ; 2) low-enriched uranium

LEUHR : low energy ultra high-resolution (parallel hole collimator)

LEVD : Leu-Glu-Val-Asp

LF : lactoferrin (Lf)

LFA : leukocyte (lymphocyte) function-associated Ag

LFT : liver function tests

LGC : laboratory of the government chemist

LGL : 1) large granular lymphocyte ; 2) lethal giant-larvae (Lgl)

lgp : lysosomal glycoprotein

LGS : Langer-Giedion syndrome

LGT : lateral gene transfer

LGV : lymphogranuloma venereum

LH : 1) luteinizing hormone ; 2) lypoxygenase homology (domain)

LHA : lateral hypothalamic area

LHC : large hadron collider

LHON : Leber hereditary optic neuropathy

LHRH : LH-releasing hormone

LI : lobular index

LIBC : latent iron-binding capacity

LIC-PCR : ligation independent cloning of PCR products

LIDAR : light detection and ranging

LIF . 1) leukaemia inhibiting factor ; 2) laser-induced fluorescence

LIFR : LIF receptor

lig : ligament

LIM : 1) lymphoid inducing microenvironment ; 2) limit (lim) ; 3) Lin-11, Isl-1, Mec-3 (Zn binding domain)

LIMS : laboratory information management system

LIN : lineage marker (lin)

LINAC : linear accelerator

LINE : long interspersed element

LIP : 1) (PKC)l-interacting protein ; 2) lateral intraparietal area ; 3) lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia

LIPID : long-term intervention with pravastatin in ischaemic disease

LIR : leukocyte inhibitory (or Ig-like) receptor

LISS : low-ionic-strength saline

LIT : lymphocyte inhibitor of TRAIL

LIX : lipopolysaccharide-induced CXC chemokine

LJ : Lennard-Jones (parameters)

LKLF : lung Kruppel-like factor

LKN : leukotactin (Lkn)

LL : lower left

LLAT : lysolecithin:lecithin acyltransferase

LLC : Lewis lung carcinoma

LLD : left lateral decubitus

LLO : listeriolysin O

LLTP : late LTP (L-LTP)

LM : 1) ligation-mediated ; 2) littermate

LMA : laryngeal mask airway

LMB : leptomycin B

LME : L-Leu methyl ester

LMM : light meromyosin

LMNC : 1) lung mononuclear cell ; 2) liver mononuclear cell

LMP : latent membrane protein

LM-PCR : ligand- (or ligation-) mediated PCR

LMR : lemur

LMT : low melting temperature

LMP : latent membrane protein

LMWC : low molecular weight component

LMWH : low molecular weight heparin

LMWP : low molecular weight phosphatase (domain)

LN : 1) lymph node ; 2) natural logarithm (ln) ; 3) laminin

LNA : a-linolenic acid

LNAME : L-NG-nitrosoarginine methyl ester (L-NAME)

LNC : lymph node cell

LNFP : lacto-N-neofucopentaose

LNGV : Langur virus

LNIT : local nasal immunotherapy

LNL : lymph node lymphocyte

LNMMA : NG-methyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA)

LO : lypooxygenase

LOC : level of consciousness

LOD : 1) logarithm of the odds; 2) limit of detection

LOF : loss-of-function

log : logarithm

LOH : loss of heterozigosity (LOH/LoH)

LOI : loss of imprinting

LOMO : lowest unoccupied molecular orbital

LOQ : limit of quantitation

LOS : lipooligosaccharide

LOX : 1) lipoxygenase ; 2) lectin-like oxLDL (receptor)

LP : lamina propria

LPA : 1) lysophosphatidic acid ; 2) linear polyacrylamide

LPC : lysophosphatidylcholine

LPCVD : low-pressure chemical vapour deposition

LPDS : lipoprotein-deficient serum

LPH : lipotropin

LPL : 1) lipoprotein lipase ; 2) lysophospholypase

LPR : 1) lymphoproliferative response ; 2) late phase reaction

LPS : lipopolysaccharide

LPTA : lysophospholypid transacylase

LQT : long QT syndrome

LRC : leukocyte receptor cluster

LRD : Leu-rich domain

LRI : lower respiratory tract illness

LRP : LDL-receptor related protein

LRR : Leu-rich repeat

LRT : lower respiratory tract

LS : 1) large subunit of (Ls) ; 2) lateral septum ; 3) lung surfactant

LSB : long-spike burst

LSC : laser scanning cytometry

LSD : 1) lysosomal storage disease ; 2)  lysergic acid diethylamide ; 3) least significant difference

LSEC : liver sinusoidal endothelial cell

LSH : lutein-stimulating hormone

LSM : La(Sr)MnO3

LSP : leukocyte-specific protein

LSS : lung surfactant system

LSSC : lumbosacral spinal cord

LST : land surface temperature

LT : 1) leukotriene ; 2) lymphotoxin ; 3) left (lt) ; 4) large tumour (antigen) ; 5) (heat-)labile toxin ; 6) loratadine ; 7) lung T cell ; 8) lethal toxin

LTA : lipoteichoic acid

LTBP : latent TGF-b binding protein

LTD : long-term depression

LTK : leukocyte tyrosine kinase

LTNP : long-term non-progressor

LTP : 1) lipid-transfer protein ; 2) long-term potentiation

LTR : long terminal repeats

LTRA : leukotriene receptor antagonist

LTS : low-temperature superconducting

LTSV : lucerne transient streak virusoid

LU : 1) lytic unit ; 2) Ly-6 Ag / uPAR-like domain

LUC : luciferase (LUC / luc)

LUMVEC : lung microvascular endothelial cell

lux : (bacterial) luciferase

LV : 1) lentiviral ; 2) left ventricle

LVA : low-voltage activated

LVAD : left ventricular assist device

LVEDD : left ventricular end diastolic diameter

LVL : large-volume leukapheresis

LVNC : left ventricular noncompaction

L & W : living and well

LY : 1) Lucifer Yellow ; 2) LDL-R YWTD (domain)

lymphs : lymphocytes

Lys : lysine

lyso- : deacylated phospholipid

LYVE : lymphatic vessel endothelial (hyaluronic acid receptor)

Lyx : lyxose

LYZ : lysozyme (domain)

LZ : Leu zipper

- M -

# ABCDEFGHIJKL M N OPQRSTUVWXYZ

M : 1) mouse (m) ; 2) mammalian (m) ; 3) macrophage ; 4) morgan (unit) ; 5) milli (m) ; 6) molar (concentration) ; 5) micro (m) ; 6) meter (m) ; 7) Met ; 8) mega ; 9) muscarinic (AChR) ; 10) messenger (m) ; 11) mass (m) ; 12) microfold (cell) ; 13) murmur (m) ; 14) male ; 15) misce (i.e. : mix) (M.) ; 16) meta (m-) ; 17) metal ; 18) amino (i.e. : A or C in base codes) ; 19) membrane-anchoring hydrophobic domain (M) ; 20) medium (size) ; 21) membrane (glycoprotein) ; 22) matrix (protein) ; 23) metastatic status ; 24) monomeric (m)

M! : primary motor cortex

m1a : 1-methyladenosine

m1am : 2'-O-methyl-1-methyladenosine

m1f : 1-methylpseudouridine

m1g : 1-methylguanosine

m1i : 1-methylinosine

m22g : 2,2-dimethylguanosine

m22gm : N2,N2,3'-trimethylguanosine

m2a : 2-methyladenosine

m2g : 2-methylguanosine

m3c : 3-methylcytidine

m5c : 5-methylcytidine

m6a : N6-methyladenosine

M6PR : mannose-6-phosphate receptor

m7g : 7-methylguanosine

MA : 1) membrane Ag ; 2) mental age ; 3) methyl-accepting (chemotaxis-like domain) ; 4) matrix (protein)

MAAP : multiple arbitrary amplicon profiling

mAb : monoclonal Ab

MAC : 1) mammalian artificial chromosome ; 2) membrane attack complex ; 3) maximum allowable concentration ; 4) minimum alveolar concentration ; 5) Mycobacterium avium complex

MACE : major adverse cardiac events

MACH : MORT-associated CED-3 homologue

MACHR : muscarinic ACh receptor (mAChR)

MACPF : MAC perforin (domain)

MACS : magnetic-activated cell sorting

MAD : 1) Mothers against dpp (Mad) ; 2) multiple-wavelenght anomalous dispersion ; 3) mitotic arrest defective

MAdCAM : mucosal addressin CAM

MADD : MAPK activating DD

MADGE : microtiter (microplate) array diagonal gel electrophoresis

MAF : macrophage activating factor

MAG : 1) myelin-associated glycoprotein ; 2) monoacylglycerol

MAGP : microfibrill-associated glycoprotein

MAGUK : membrane-associated guanylate kinase

MAIDS : murine AIDS

MAK : macrophage-activated killer (cell)

MAL : 1) medullary ascending limb ; 2) MyD88-adapter like

MALDI-TOF : matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight

MALT : mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue

MAM : meprin, A5, mu (domain)

mam5s2u : 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine

mam5u : 5-methylaminomethyluridine

Man : mannose

MANOVA : multivariate ANOVA

man q : b-D-mannosylqueuosine

MAO : monoamine oxidase

MAOI : MAO inhibitor

MAP : 1) microtubule-associated protein ; 2) mean arterial pressure ; 3) methyl-accepting protein ; 4) mitogen-activated protein ; 5) modified atmosphere packaging

MAP3K : MAPKKK

MAP4K : MAPKKKK

MAPC : multipotent adult progenitor cell

MAPK : mitogen-activated protein kinase

MAPKAP(K) : MAPK-activated protein kinase

MAPKKK : MAPKK kinase

MAPKKKK : MAPKKK kinase

MAPT : MAP tau

MAR : matrix-attachment region

MARCKS : myristoylated Ala-rich C-kinase substrate

MARS : marker assisted recurrent selection

MART : melanoma Ag recognized by T cells

MAS : marker assisted selection

MASDA : multiplexed allele-specific diagnostic assay

MASER : microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation

MASP : MBL-associated Ser protease

MAST : magnetic-assisted subtractive technique

MAT : microscopic agglutination test

MATH : meprin and TRAF homology

MATS : marker addition through subtraction

MB : 1) myoglobin (Mb) ; 2) molecular beacons ; 3) membrane-bound ; 4) methylene blue

MBC : 1) maximal breathing capcity ; 2) minimal bactericidal concentration

MBCD : methyl-b-cyclodextrin

MBE : moving boundary electrophoresis

MBL : mannan-binding lectin

MBLdS : MBL-depleted serum

MBN : mung bean nuclease

Mbo : Moraxella bovis

MBP : 1) major basic protein ; 2) Man-binding protein ; 3) myelin basic protein ; 4) mean blood pressure ; 5) maltose binding protein

MC : 1) mast cell ; 2) mononuclear cell ; 3) mesangial cell

MCA : 1) minimum cross-sectional area; 2) 20-methylcholanthrene

MCAD : medium-chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase

MCAF : monocyte chemotactic activating factor

MCAM : melanoma CAM

MCB : medullary carcinoma of the breast

MCC : 1) moth cytochrome c ; 2) mutated in colon cancer

MCD : 1) multicentric Castleman disease ; 2) magnetic CD ; 3) methylcyclodextran

MCE : magnetocaloric effect

MCF : 1) microcomplement fixation ; 2) mean channel fluorescence

MCG : 1) mast cell granule ; 2) microgram (mcg)

MCH : 1) mammalian CED-3 homologue (Mch) ; 2) melanin-concentrating hormone ; 3) mean cell (RBC) Hb ; 4) metacholine (MCh)

MCHC : mean cell (RBC) Hb concentration

Mcl : myeloid cell leukemia

MCM : 1) mucous cell metaplasia ; 2) minichromosome maintenance ; 3) monocyte-conditioned medium

mcm5s2u : 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine

mcm5u : 5-methoxycarbonylmethyluridine

MCMD : minor cognitive/motor disorder

MCMV : murine CMV

MCP : 1) monocyte chemoattractant protein ; 2) major cofactor protein ; 3) multicatalytic proteinase ; 4) macrophage chemotactic protein ; 5) mast cell protease

MCPP : m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP)

MCS : 1) master cell stock ; 2) multiple cloning site

MCTD : mixed connective tissue disease

MCV : 1) mean cell (RBC) volume ; 2) (avian) myelocytomatosis virus

MD : 1) mean deviation-mean defect ; 2) molecular dynamics ; 3) myotonic dystrophy

MDA : 1) methylenedioxyamphetamine ; 2) melanoma differentiation Ag (mad) ; 3) malonyl-dialdehyde

MDADS : multiparameter data acquisition and display system

MDC : macrophage-derived chemokine

MDCK : Madin-Darby canine kidney (epithelial cell)

MDCT : mouse distal convoluted tubule (cell)

MDEG : mammalian degenerin (homologue)

MDF : myocardial depressant factor

MDFW : modifier of DFW

mdg : modifier gene

MDH : malate dehydrogenase

m.dict. : modo dictu (i.e. : as directed)

MDM : 1) murine DM ; 2) monocyte-derived macrophage

MDMA : methylenedioxymethamphetamine

MDP : methylene diphosphonate

MDR : 1) multidrug resistance ; 2) minimum daily requirement

MDS : 1) myelodisplastic syndrome ; 2) frequency domain spectroscopy

MDT : mean death time

ME : 1) median eminence ; 2) methyl (Me/me)

MEA : membrane-electrode assembly

MEC : 1) mucosae-associated epithelial chemokine ; 2) minimum effective concentration ; 3) mouse embryonic cell

MeCP : methyl-CpG (binding) protein

MED : 1) minimum ED ; 2) medical, medicine (med) ; 3) minimal erythema (or erythemogenic) dose

MEF : 1) myocyte enhancer factor ; 2) murine embyonic fibroblast ; 3) maximal expiratory flow

Meg : megakaryocyte

mega : 106

MEK : MAPK/ERK kinase

MEKC : micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography

MEKK : MEK kinase

MEL : melatonin

MELAS : mitochondrial encephalomiopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes

MEL(C) : murine erythroleukaemia (cell)

MEM : 1) (Eagle's) minimum essential medium

MEN : 1) multiple endocrine neoplasia ; 2) mitotic exit network

MeOH : methanol

MEOS : microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system

MEP : 1) megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitor; 2) motor-evoked potential ; 3) maximum expiratory pressure

MEPP : miniature end-plate potential

MERLIN : multipoint engine for rapid likelihood inference

MES : 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid

meso- : chiral centers-containing achiral amino acid

MESV : murine embryonic stem cell virus

Met : methionine

MEU : medium-enriched uranium

MF : 1) mother's father ; 2) macrophage (Mf) ; 3) mitogenic factor

MFF : mycophenolate mofetil

MFGM : milk-fat globular membrane proteins

MFI : 1) mean fluorescence intensity ; 2) maternal floor infarction

M-FISH : multiplex FISH

MFM : magnetic force microscopy

MFO : mixed-function oxygenase

MFPK : multifunctional protein kinase

MFV : multi-foci inducing virus

MG : myasthenia gravis

MG132 : carbobenzoxy-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-leucinal

MGC : multi-glycosylated core (protein)

MGDG : monogalactosyldiacylglycerol

MGE : mobile genetic element

MGSA : melanoma growth stimulating activity

MGUS : monoclonal gammapathy of uncertain (or undetermined) significance

MH : microcell hybrid

MHAG : minor histocompatibility antigen (mHag)

MHC : 1) major histocompatibility complex ; 2) myosin heavy chain

MHCK : myosin II heavy chain kinase

MHV : 1) murine herpesvirus ; 2) Mill Hill virus ; 3) mouse hepatitis virus

MIAME : minimum information about a microarray experiment

MIBE : measles inclusion bodies encephalitis

MIC : minimal inhibitory concentration

MICA : MHC-class-I-chain related A (Ag)

MICB : MHC-class-II-chain related B (Ag)

MICE : mini-ICE

micro : 1) 10-6 ; 2) microscopic

MID : multi-infarct dementia

MIDAS : metal ion-dependent adhesion site

MIDD : mitochondrial diabetes and deafness

MIF : 1) maximal inspiratory flow ; 2) macrophage migration inhibitory factor

MIG : monokine induced by interferon gamma

milli : 10-3

MIM : multilateral initiative on malaria

MIN : 1) minute (min) ; 2) minimum (min) ; 3) minisatellite (or microsatellite) instability ; 4) mammary intraepithelial neoplasia

MIP : 1) mobilferrin-integrin pathway ; 2) macrophage inflammatory protein ; 3) maximum inspiratory pressure

MIR : monocyte-macrophage receptor

MIRL : membrane inhibitor of reactive lysis

MIRR : multi-subunit immune recognition receptor

MIS : mucosal immune system

MIT : 1) monoiodotyrosine ; 2) Massachussetts institute of technologies

MITE : miniature inverted-repeat transposable element

MITR : MEF2 interacting transcriptional repressor

MIWD : mean integrated weight difference

MJ : methyl jasmonate

MJD : Machado-Joseph disease

MKK : MAP kinase kinase

MKP : MAP kinase phosphatase

ML : montelukast

MLB : maximum likelihood binomial

MLC : 1) mixed lymphocyte culture ; 2) myosin light chain

MLCK : myosin II DTNB light chain (serine/threonine) kinase

MLCP : myosin II DTNB light chain phosphatase

MLEC : mixed lymphocyte-endothelial cell culture

MLEE : multi-locus enzyme electrophoresis

MLIAP : melanoma IAP

MLL : mixed-lineage leukemia

MLK : 1) mixed lineage (or multilineage) kinase

MLN : 1) mediastinal lymph node ; 2) mesenteric lymph nodes

MLP : 1) muscle LIM-domain protein ; 2) multipotent lymphoid progenitor ; 3) multilineage progenitor (assay)

MLR : mixed leukocyte reaction

Mls, minor lymphocyte stimulating

MLV : murine leukaemia virus

MLVA : multi-locus VNTR analysis

MM : 1) millimicro (i.e. : nano) (mm) ; 2) mother's mother ; 3) multiple myeloma

MMA : methylmethacrylate

MMAD : mass median aerodynamic diameter

MMC : 1) migrating myoelectric complex ; 2) mucosal mast cell ; 3) mitomycin C

MMCP : mouse mast cell protease

MMCT : microcell-mediated chromosome transfer

MMDB : molecular modeling database

MMEF : maximal mid-expiratory flow

MMFRR : mid-maximal flow rate ratio

MMN : mismatch negativity

m-MNT : 2-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)-naphtho[1,2-d]thiazole

MMP : 1) matrix metalloproteinase ; 2) mitochondrial membrane potential

MMPI : 1) matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor ; 2) Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory

MMR : 1) measles, mumps and rubella (vaccine) ; 2) mismatch repair ; 3) macrophage mannose receptor

MMS : methylmethanesulfonate

MMT : methylcyclopentadienyl Mn tricarbonyl

MMTV : murine (or mouse) mammary tumour virus

MN : metanephrine

MNASE : micrococcal nuclease (MNase)

MNC : mononuclear cell

MNK : MAP kinase-interacting kinase

MnTBAP : Mn(III)tetrakis(4-benzoic acid) porphyrin

MNU : methylnitrosourea

Mo : 1) motilin ; 2) month (mo)

mo5u : 5-methoxyuridine

MOD : model-organism DB

MODS : multiple organ dysfunction syndrome

MODY : maturity-onset diabetes of the young

MOE : main olfactory epithelium

MOF : multi-organ failure

MOG : myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein

MOI : multiplicity of infection

MOKE : magneto-optic Kerr-effect

mol : mole

MoMLV : Moloney murine leukaemia virus

MoMSV : Moloney murine sarcoma virus

MONA : morphine, oxygen, nitroglycerin and aspirin

MOPEG : 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylene

MOPN : mouse pneumonitis (MoPn)

MOPS : 4-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid

MOTT : mycobacteria other than tuberculosis

MOZ : monocytic leukaemia zinc finger

MP : 1) melting point (m.p.) ; 2) monophosphate ; 3) motor practice ; 4) mononuclear phagocyte ; 5) mercaptopurine

MPA : 1) mycophenolic acid ; 2) medroxyprogesterone acetate

MPC : Merwin plasma cell (tumor line)

MPD : 1) minimal phototoxic dose ; 2) myeloproliferative disorder

MPF : maturation (or mitosis)-promoting factor

MPGES : membrane-bound PGE2 synthase (mPGES)

MPI : 1) myeloperoxidase index ; 2) Mannheim peritonitis index

MPIF : myeloid progenitor inhibitory factor

MPL : monophosphoryl lipid A

MPMV : Mason-Pfizer monkey virus

MPO : myeloperoxidase

MPR : 1) most parsimonious reconstruction ; 2) mannose-6-phosphate receptor

MPSV : myeloproliferative sarcoma virus

MPTP : methylphenytetrahydropyridine

MPV : 1) mutant prevention concentration ; 2) mean platelet volume

MPXI : myeloperoxidase index

MR : 1) (relative) molecular mass (Mr) ; 2) mineralcorticoid receptor ; 3) Man receptor

MRA : maximum rate of depolarization

MRC : medical research council

MRD : maximum rate of depolarization

MRE : 1) meiotic recombination ; 2) metal RE

MRF : midbrain reticular formation

MRFIT : multiple risk factor intervention trial

MRI : magnetic resonance imaging

MRIT : Mach-related inducer of toxicity

MRP : 1) MDR-associated protein ; 2) myeloid-related protein ; 3) MIF-related protein ; 4) multidrug resistance-associated protein

MRS : magnetic resonance spectroscopy

MRSA : methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

MRT : 1) mediator release test ; 2) movement reaction time

MSSA : methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus

MS : 1) mass spectrometry or spectroscopy ; 2) medial septum ; 3) multiple-copy single-strand (ms) ; 4) multiple sclerosis ; 5) maturation shift

ms2i6a : 2-methylthio-N6-isopentenyladenosine

ms2t6a : N-((9-b-D-ribofuranosyl-2-methylthiopurin-6-yl)carbamoyl) threonine

mt6a : N-((9-b-D-ribofuranosylpurine-6-yl)N-methyl-carbamoyl) threonine

MSA : modulator of STAT activity

MSAP : methylation sensitive amplification polymorphism

MSC : 1) myeloid suppressor cell; 2) mesenchymal stem cell

MSG : monosodic Glu

MSH : 1) MutS homolog ; 2) melanocyte-stimulating hormone

MSI : microsatellite instability

MSIA : mass spectrographic immunoassay

MSK : mitogen and stress-activated kinase

MSLI : multistage liquid impinger

MS/MS : tandem MS

MSP : 1)  macrophage stimulating protein ; 2) merozoite surface protein ; 3) major surface protein

MSSA : methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus

MST : 1) mean survival time ; 2) microcoleus (Mst)

MSUM : monosodium urate monohydrate

MSV : 1) murine sarcome virus ; 2) Master seed virus

MT : 1) mitochondrial (mt) ; 2) middle tumour antigen (mT) ; 3) middle temporal (visual area) ; 4) motor threshold

MTAL : medullary thick ascending limb

MTALH : medullary thick ascending limb of Henle (mTALH)

MTase : methyltransferase

MTD : 1) multi-target detection ; 2) microfine titanium dioxide ; 3) maximum tolerated dose

MTEC : medullary TEC (mTEC)

MTF : metrifonate

MTHFR : 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase

MTK : MAP three kinase

MTOC : microtubule organization center

mTOR : mammalian target of rapamycin

MTP : microsomal triglyceride transfer protein

MTT : 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide

MTV : manually triggered ventilator

MULT : murine ULBP-like transcript

MuLV : murine leukemia virus

Mur : muramic acid

MurNAc : N-acetylmuramic acid

MuSK : muscle-specific kinase

mv : uridine-5-oxoacetic acid methylester

MVA : modified vaccinia virus Ankara

MVB : multivesicular body

MVD : microvessel density

MVLS : modified varicella-like syndrome

MVM : minute virus of mice

MVR-PCR : minisatellite variant repeat-specific PCR

MVV : maximal voluntary ventilation

MW : molecular weight

MWC : Monod, Wyman and Changeux (model)

MWT : maintenance of wakefulness test

MXH : mycophenolic acid/xanthine/hypoxanthine

Myc : (avian) my(el)c(ytomatosis virus)

MyD : myeloid differentiation factor

MyHC : myosin heavy chain

MYO : myosin

MyoD : myocyte differentiation

MyoD : myogenic determination factor

MYST : MOZ, YBF2/SAS3, SAS2 and TIP60

MZ : 1) marginal zone ; 2) monozygotic (twins)

MZB : mizoribine

MZM : marginal zone macrophage

- N -

# ABCDEFGHIJKLM N OPQRSTUVWXYZ

N : 1) neural / nerve ; 2) nuclear (n) ; 3) Avogadro's number ; 4) nano (n) ; 5) Asn ; 6) neither L nor T ; 7) newton (unit) ; 8) number of theoretical plates ; 9) neurotensin ; 10) nucleoside (unknown) ; 11) normal (concentration) ; 12) number of observations in study or group (n) ; 13) number (n) ; 14) nut site (binding protein) ; 15) double covalent bond position in a FFA starting from methyl group (n) ; 16) A or C or G or T in base codes ; 17) neuraminidase serotype ; 18) nucleoprotein or nucleocapsid (protein) ; 19) lymph node status ; 20) natural (n)

NA : 1) not applicable ; 2) not available ; 3) neuraminidase

NAA : naphtalen acetic acid

NaAc : sodium acetate

NAADP : b-nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate

NAB : natural antibody (NAb)

NAC : N-acetylcysteine

NAD : b-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

NADD : NAD dehydrogenase

NADG : N-acetyl-D-glucosamine

NADP : b-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

NAG : N-acetylglucosamine

NAI : naturally acquired immunity

NAIP : neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein

NALT : nasal-associated lymphoid tissue

NAM : N-acetylmuramic acid

NANA : N-acetyl neuraminic acid

NANC : non-adrenergic-non-cholinergic

nano : 10-9

NANP : Asn-Ala-Asn-Pro

NAO : nucleus associated organelle

NAP : neutrophil-activatring peptide / protein

NAR : 1) nurse shark receptor ; 2) nitrate reductase

narc : narcotic, narcotism

NAS : 1) National Academy of Sciences ; 2) nonsense-associated altered splicing

NASBA : nucleic acid sequence-based amplification

NAT : 1) N-acetyltransferase ; 2) nucleic acid amplification testing

NB : 1) nucleus basalis ; 2) nucleotide-binding (site) ; 3) neuroblast

NBC : nuclear, biological and chemical (defense)

NBD : 1) nucleotide binding domain ; 2) 7-nitro-2-1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl ; 3) NEMO binding domain

NBK : natural born killer

NBS : 1) nucleotide-binding site ; 2) Nijmegen breakage syndrome ; 3) normal breath sound

NBT : nitro blue tetrazolium

Nbs2 : DTNB

NBV : negative pressure body ventilation

NC : 1) nitrocellulose ; 2) nucleocapsid (protein) ; 3) noncleavable (peptide)

NCA : nonspecific cross-reacting antigen

NCBI : national center for biotechnology information

NCC : neurocysticercosis

NCD : non-communicable disease

NCE : new chemical entity

NCEP : national cholesterol education program

NCI : national cancer institute

NCMIC : neocentromere-based minichromosome (NC-MiC)

NCoR : nuclear receptor corepressor

NCR : noncoding region

NCS : newborn calf serum

NCSA : national center for supercomputing applications

NCX : Na+/Ca2+ exchange

ND : 1) nuclear dots ; 2) not determined ; 3) no data provided

NDA : new drug application

NDF : 1) Neu differentiation factor ; 2) no disease found

Ndk : nucleoside diphosphate kinase

NDM : nondirectional movement

NDP : nucleoside 5'-diphosphate

NDRA : non-destructive rheumatoid arthritis

NE : norepinephrine

NEB : nuclear envelope breakdown

NEBD : nuclear envelope breakdown

NEC : necrotizing enterocolitis

NED : 1) neutral evolutionary distance ; 2) N-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride

Nedd : neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated

NEFA : not-esterified fatty acid

neg : negative

Nek : NIMA-related kinase

NEMO : NFkB essential modulator

NEP : neutral endopeptidase

NEPHGE : nonequilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis

NER : nucleotide excision repair

NES : nuclear export signal

NET : noepinephrine transporter

Neu : neu(roblastoma)

NeuNAc : N-acetylneuraminic acid

NeuroD : neurogenic differentiation

NF : 1) neurofibromin ; 2) nuclear factor ; 3) neurofilament ; 4) necrotizing fasciitis ; 5) national formulary

NFAT : nuclear factor of activated T cells

NFATP : preexisting NF-AT (NF-ATp)

NF-kB : nuclear factor k B

NFV : nefinavir

NGF : nerve growth factor

NH : neurohypophysial hormones

NHA : normal human astrocyte

NHBE : normal human bronchial epithelial cell

NHEJ : non-homologous end-joining

NHERF : Na/H exchanger regulatory factor

NHL : non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

NHLBI : national heart, lung , and blood institute

NHS : normal human serum

NI : neutralization index

NIAID : national institute of allergy and infectious diseases

NICER : NGF-inducible cAMP-extinguishable retrovirus-like

NICU : neonatal ICU

NID : NR-interacting domain

NIDA : national institute on drug abuse

NIDDM : non-IDDM

NIF : negative inspiratory force

NIFO : nifedipine oxidase

NIGMS : national institute of general medical sciences

NIH : national institutes of health

NIK : 1) Nck-interacting kinase ; 2) NF-kB-inducing kinase

NIL : near isogenic lines

Nim : never in mitosis

NIMA : never in mitosis A

NIMH : national institute of mental health

NIMV : noninvasive mechanical ventilation

NINDS : national institute of neurological disorders and stroke

NINT : national institute for nanotechnology

Ni-NTA : nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid

NIP : 1) 4-hydroxy-5-iodo-3-nitrophenyl ; 2) nineteen kDa interacting protein

NIPK : neuronal cell death inducible putative kinase

NIPP : nuclear inhibitor of PP

NIPPV : noninvasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation

NIR : 1) non-infectious rhinitis ; 2)  near-infrared

NIRF : near-infrared fluorescence

NIS : Na+-I- symporter

NIST : national institute of standards and technology

NIV : noninvasive ventilation

NK : 1) natural killer (cell) ; 2) neurokinin

NKC : NK cell gene complex

NKT : NK T (cell)

Nle : norleucine

NLEA : nutrition labeling and education act

NLK : Nemo-like kinase

NLM : national library of medicine

NLS : nuclear localization signal (or sequence)

NM : neuromedin

NMD : nonsense-mediated (mRNA) decay

NMDA : N-methyl-D-Asp

NMJ : neuromuscular junction

NMN : nicotinamide mononucleotide

NMR : nuclear magnetic resonance

NMRC : naval medical research center

NMS : normal mouse serum

NMTS : nuclear matrix targeting signal

NMU : N-nitroso-N-methyl-urea

NNH : number needed to harm

NNR : neonatal neuronal retina

NNRTI : non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor

NNT : number needed to treat

no. : number

NOD : non-obese diabetic

NOE : nuclear Overhauser effect

NOESY : nuclear Overhauser and exchange spectroscopy

NOFQ : nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ)

non rep. : non repetatur (i.e. : do not repeat)

NOR : 1) nucleolar organizer region ; 2) compound after removal of a methylene group (nor-)

norm : normal

NOS : nitric oxide (NO) synthase

Not : Norcadia otitidis-caviarum

NP : 1) Niemann-Pick (disease) ; 2) neuropeptide ; 3) neuropsychiatry ; 4) nucleoprotein ; 5) neuropilin ; 6) 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetyl

NP-40 : Nonidet P-40

NPC : 1) nuclear pore complex ; 2) no previous complaint ; 3) nasopharyngeal carcinoma ; 4) neural progenitor cell

NPH : 1) normalized percentage of hybridization ; 2) no previous history ; 3) neutral protamine Hagedorn

nPKC : novel PKC

NPI : 1) nucleoprotein interactor ; 2) non-specific pneumonia interstitialis

NPL : 1) natural peptide library ; 2) non parametric LOD (score)

NPM : nucleophosmin

NPN : non protein nitrogen

NPO : nihil per os (i.e. : nothing by mouth) (n.p.o.)

NPPV : noninvasive positive pressure ventilation

NPT : neomicin phosphotransferase

NPY : neuropeptide Y

NR : 1) normal record ; 2) non repetatur (i.e. : not to be repeated) (n.r.) ; 3) nuclear receptor

NRAMP : natural resistance associated macrophage protein

NRE : negative regulatory element

NRF : 1) NF-E2-related factor (Nrf) ; 2) nuclear respiratory factor

Nrl : neural retina leucine zipper

NRS : normal rabbit serum

NRSE : neuron-restricted silencing element

NRSF : neuron-restricted silencing factor

NRTI : nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor

NRY : non-recombining region of the human Y chromosome

NS : 1) not significant ; 2) non-structural (viral protein) ; 3) Noonan syndrome ; 4) normal (human) serum

NSA : 1) national security agency ; 2) no significant abnormality

NSAA : nonsteroidal antiandrogen

NSAID : nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug

NSB : nonspecific binding

NSC : neural stem cell

NSCLC : non-small cell lung cancer

NSD : neutral sphingomyelinase-activating domain

NSE : 1) nonspecific esterase ; 2) neuron-specific enolase

NSF : 1)  N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein ; 2) national science fundation

NSI : non-syncitia inducing (HIV-1 strain)

NSILA(S) : non-suppressible insulin-like acting (substance)

NST : non stress test

NT : 1) nucleotide (nt) ; 2) not tested ; 3) neurotrophin ; 4) nuclear transfer

NTA : nitrilotriacetic acid

NTAL : non-T-cell activation linker

NTD : 1) N-terminal domain ; 2) neural tube defect

NTED : neonatal TSS-like exanthematous disease

NTF : nuclear transport factor

NTG : 1) nontransgenic (Ntg) ; 2) nitrosoguanidine

NTN : 1) N-terminal nucleophile (hydrolase) ; 2) neurturin

NTP : normal temperature and pressure

NTR : nitroreductase

NTS : 1) nephrotoxic serum ; 2) nucleus tractus solitarii

Nuc : nucleoside

NUMA : nuclear mitotic apparatus

Nurr : Nur-related (factor)

NV : 1) new variant (nv) ; 2) nausea and/or vomiting  (N/V) ; 3) neovascularization

NVA : 1) norvaline (Nva) ; 2) national vaccine authority

NVP : nevirapine

NZ : New Zealand

- O -

# ABCDEFGHIJKLMN O PQRSTUVWXYZ

O : open (conformation) ; 2) ortho (o-) ; 3) oligosaccharide (Ag)

o5u : uridine-5-oxyacetic acid

OA : 1) osteoarthritis ; 2) ovarian-carcinoma Ag

OAA : oxalacetate

OAc : acetate

OAE : ocean anoxic event

OAF : osteoclast activating factor

OATP : organic anion transporter

OB : 1) obstetrics ; 2) olfactory bulb

OB-GYN : obstetrics and gynecology

OBS : observed (Obs./obs)

OC : 1) osteoclast ; 2) optic chiasm

OCD : 1) organic cationic drug ; 2) obsessive-compulsive disorder

OCIF : osteoclastogenesis-inhibitory factor

OCL : osteoclast-like cell

OCT : 1) octamer-binding factor ; 2) optimal cutting temperature (compound)

OCTD : overlapping connective tissue disease

OGP : 1-octyl-b-D-glucopyranoside (buffer)

OD : 1) optical density ; 2) outside diameter (o.d.) ; 3) omni die (i.e. : every day) (o.d.) ; 4) oculus dextrus (i.e. : right eye) (o.d.)

ODC : ornithine decarboxylase

ODD : oxygen-dependent domain

ODF : osteoclast differentiation factor

ODN : oligodeoxynucleotide

ODQ : 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one

O/E : on examination

OECD : organization for economic co-operation and development

OER : oxygen enhancement ratio

OFAGE : orthogonal field alternated gel electrophoresis

OFID : optical frequency interval divider

OG : 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine

OH : omni hora (i.e. : every hour) (o.h.)

OHC : outer hairy cell

OHSS : ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

OHSU : Oregon Health and Science University

OI : opportunistic infection

OIA : oil-induced arthritis

OK : opossum kidney

OLA : oligonucleotide ligation assay

OLB : open lung biopsy

OLF : olfactomedin (-like domain)

OM : omni mane (i.e. : every morning) (o.m.)

OMALT : organized MALT (O-MALT)

OMCD : outer medullary collecting duct

OMCT : outer medullary collecting tubule

OMH : optimal matching hydrophobicity

OMM : outer mitochondrial membrane

OMT : O-methyltransferase

ON : omni nocte (i.e. : every night) (o.n.)

ONL : outer nuclear layer

ONP : O-nitrophenol

ONPG : O-nitrophenyl-b-D-galactopiranoside

ONR : office of naval research

OP : 1) oligonucleotide polymorphism ; 2) operation ; 3) osteopontin ; 4) oxygenic photosynthesis

o-PABA : octyl-N-dimethyl-PABA

OPAV : ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma virus

OPBP : off-patent biotech product

OPC : outpatient clinic

OPD : 1) o-phenyldiamine (buffer) ; 2) outpatient department

OPG : 1) osteoprotegerin ; 2) oxalase-phenol-glycerin (preservative solution)

Ophth : ophthalmology

opp : opposite, opposed

OPR : 1) octicosapeptide repeat ; 2) observed prothrombin ratio

OPRR : office for protection from research risks

OPS : outpatient section (or service)

OPV : oral polio vaccine

OR : 1) odds ratio ; 2) operating room ; 3) olfactory (odorant) receptor

ORC : origin-recognition complex

ORD : optical rotation dispersion

ORF : open reading frame

org : organism, organic

ORI : ori(gin of replication)

ORK : OR kinase

ORL : opioid receptor-like

Orn : ornithine

ORS : oral rehydration salts

ORT : oral rehydration therapy

OS : 1) osmotic ; 2) operating system ; 3) oculo sinixtro (i.e. : left eye ) (o.s.) ; 4) obese strain; 5) overall survial

OSAS : obstructive sleep apnea  syndrome

OSCP : oligomycin sensitivity-conferring protein

OSETI : optical SETI

OSHA : occupational safety and health administration

OSN : olfactory sensory neuron

OSP : outer surface protein (Osp)

OSTP : office of science technology policy

osyw : wybutoxosine

OT : 1) oxytocin ; 2) occupational therapy ; 3) operating theatre

OTC : ornithine transcarbamylase

OTU : operational taxonomic unit

OVA : ovalbumin

OVLT : organum vasculosum laminae terminalis

OXLDL : oxidized LDL (oxLDL)

oz : ounce

- P -

# ABCDEFGHIJKLMNO P QRSTUVWXYZ

P : 1) phosphate (P, p; if inorganic : Pi) ; 2) polypeptide (p) ; 3) petit (i.e.: small) (chromosome arm) (p) ; 4) pico ; 5) Pro ; 6) pros (p) ; 7) plasmid (p) ; 8) placental ; 9) peptide (site) ; 10) pouvoir (p) ; 11) in Purkinje cell ; 12) purinoceptor ; 13) parental (generation) ; 14) protoplasmatic (face) ; 15) promoter (p) ; 16) plasma membrane (H+ ATPase) ; 17) probability (P) ; 18) postnatal day of life ; 19) pressure ; 20) partial pressure (P) ; 21) para (p-) ; 22) pulse ; 23) post (i.e. : after) ; 24) protein (p) ; 25) orbit, electron in such an orbit (p) ; 26) permeability (P) ; 27) pseudouridine (p) ; 28) pole (motion) ; 29) polimerase (protein) ; 30) paraffin (p) ; 31) poly (p)

PA : 1) proteasome activator ; 2) pascal (unit) ; 3) phosphatidic acid ; 4) plasminogen activator ; 5) alveolar pressure (Pa) ; 6) arterial pressure

PAA : 1) polyacrylamide ; 2) phosphonoacetic acid

PAAP : platelet aggregation-associated protein

PAB : poly(A)-binding protein

PABA : p-aminobenzoyc acid

PABP : poly(A)-binding protein

PABY : PAR boundary of the Y chromosome

PAC : 1) premature atrial complex ; 2) P1-derived artificial chromosome

PACAP : pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide

PACE : protein from Archaea conserved in Eukarya

PACT : PKR-activating protein

PACU : postanesthesia care unit

PAD : 1) peripheral artery disease ; 2) pulsed amperimetric detection

PAE : porcine aortic endothelial (cell)

PAEC : porcine aortic endothelial cell

PAF : platelet-activating factor

PAFC : phosphoric acid fuel cell

PAFR : PAF receptor

PAG : 1) phosphoprotein associated with glycolipid-enriched microdomains ; 2) periaqueductal grey

PAGE : polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

PAH : 1) phenylalanine hydroxylase ; 2) paired amphipathic helix ; 3) p-aminohippuric acid ; 4) pancreatic hormone ; 5) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

PAHO : Pan American Health Organization

PAI : plasminogen activator inhibitor

PAIgG : platelet-associated IgG

PAK : p21-activated (serine/threonine) kinase

PAL : peptidyl-hydroxyglycine-amidating lyase

PALK : L-Phe ammonia-lyase

PALA : N-phosphonoacetyl-L-Asp

PALS : periarteriolar lymphoid sheath

PAM : 1) peptidylglycine-amidating monooxygenase ; 2) percent accepted mutation ; 3) pulmonary alveolar macrophage

Pam3Cys : S-(2,3-bis(palmitoyloxy)-(2-RS)-propyl)-N-palmitoyl-(R)-Cys-(S)-Ser-(S)-Lys4-OH,trihydrochloride

PAMP : pathogen-associated molecular patterns

PAN : polyarteritis nodosa

PANK : pantothenate kinase

PAO : polyamine oxidase

PAP : 1) poly(A) polymerase ; 2) peroxidase/antiperoxidase (staining procedure) ; 3) peak airway pressure

PAPC : 1-palmitoyl-2-arachodonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine

PAPE : 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine

PAPMSF : p-amidinophenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride hydrochloride (p-APMSF)

PAPS : 1) 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylserine ; 2) 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulphate

PAR : 1) poly(ADP-ribose) (pAR) ; 2) pseudo autosomic region ; 3) protease-activated receptor

PARC : pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine

PARF : polymorphic amplifiable RE fragment

PARP : poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase

PAS : 1) periodic acid-Schiff (reaction) ; 2) PER, ARNT and SIM (domain)

PATH : 1) pituitary adrenotropic hormone ; 2) pathology (path)

PAV : proportional assist ventilation

Pax : 1) paxilin ; 2) paired box

PB : 1) peripheral blood ; 2) phosphate buffer

PBA : particle of bioreactive agent

PBC : 1) primary biliary cirrhosis ; 2) peptide-based chelate

PBCR : pre-B cell receptor (pBcR)

PBCS : Plasmodium berghei circumsporozoite (PbCS)

PBD : p21Rho-binding domain

PBE : peripheral blood eosinophil

PBG : porphobilinogen

PBGD : PBG deaminase

PBI : 1) protein-bound iodine ; 2) polybenzimidazole

PBL : peripheral blood lymphocyte

PBM(N)C(s) : peripheral blood MNC(s)

PBP : 1) penicillin-binding protein ; 2) periplasmic substrate-binding protein (domain)

pBR : plasmid (Herbert) Boyer and (Ray) Rodriguez

PBS : 1) (Dulbecco's) phosphate-buffered saline ; 2) primer binding site

PBST : PBS 1X, 0.05% Tween 20

PC : 1) Polycomb (Pc) ; 2) phosphatidylcholine ; 3) plastocyanin ; 4) prostacyclin ; 5) personal computer ; 6) post cibum (i.e. : after meal) (p.c.) ; 7) prohormone convertase ; 8) pseudomembranous colitis ; 9) peritoneal cavity ; 10) plasma cell ; 11) postcoitum (p.c.)

PCA : 1) passive cutaneous anaphylaxis ; 2) perchloric acid ; 3) principal components analysis ; 4) patient-controlled analgesia ; 5) plasma cell associated Ag

PCAF : p300/CBP-associated factor, a histone acetyltransferase

PCB : polychlorinated biphenyl

PCC : piridinium chlorochromate

PCD : 1) programmed cell death ; 2) protocadherin (Pcd) ; 3) papillary collecting duct

PCEC : porcine cerebral endothelial cell

PCF : photonic crystal fibre

PCH : phosphocholine (PCh)

PCI : 1) percutaneous coronary intervention ; 2) phenol, chloroform and isoamyl alcohol (mixture)

pCIP : p300/CBP interacting protein, a histone acetyltransferase

PCL : picryl chloride (PCl)

PCM : 1) pericentriolar material ; 2) protein-calorie malnutrition

PCMV : PCC4-cell-passaged MPSV

PCN : penicillin

PCNA : proliferating cell nuclear Ag

PCOV : porcine type C oncovirus

PCP : 1) phencyclidine ; 2) Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia ; 3) peridinin chlorophyll-a (PcP)

PCPA : p-chloro-Phe

PCR : 1) percutaneous coronary revascularization ; 2) polymerase chain reaction

PCRM : physicians committee for responsible medicine

PCS : photon correlation spectroscopy

PCT : 1) photochemical therapy ; 2) plateletcrit

PCV : pressure control ventilation

PCWP : pulmonary capillary wedge pressure

PD : 1) protective dose ; 2) Parkinson's disease ; 3) preferred direction ; 4) programmed (cell) death; 5) progressive disease

PDA : personal digital assistant

PDB : 1) phage dilution buffer ; 2) protein data bank

PDBu : phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate

PDC : parametric down-conversion

PDE : 1) phosphodiesterase ; 2) phosphodiester

PDECGF : platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF)

PDEI : PDE inhibitor

PDF : portable document format (.pdf)

PDGF : platelet-derived GF

PDI : protein disulfide isomerase

PDIM : phthiocerol-dimycocerosate

PDK : 1) 3-phosphoinositide-dependent (protein) kinase ; 2) pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase

PDM : peritoneal-derived macrophage

PDMA : poly(dimethylacrylamide)

PD-MS : plasma desorption mass spectroscopy

PDO : pacific decadal oscillation

PDR : physicians' desk reference

PDTC : pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate

PDUFA : prescription drug user fee act

PDW : platelet distribution width

PDZ : PSD-95, Dlg and ZO-1/2 (motif)

PE : 1) phosphatidylethanolamine ; 2) phycoerythrin

PEA : pulseless electric activity

PEBP : polyoma enhancer-binding protein

PEC : peritoneal exudate cell

PECAM : platelet endothelial CAM

Ped : pediatrics

PEEP : positive end-expiration pressure

PEF : peak expiratory flow

PEG : polyethylene glycol

PEI : polyethylenimine

PEK : pancreatic eIF2a-subunit kinase

PEM : protein-energy malnutrition

PEMA : phenylethylmalonamide

PEMFC : polymeric-electrolyte-membrane fuel cell

PEN : 1) penetrating (pen) ; 2) positive-electrolyte-negative

PENH : enhanced pause (PenH / Penh)

penta : 1015

PEO : polyethylene oxide

PEP : 1) polymerase extension PCR ; 2) phosphoenolpyruvate

PEPCK : PEP carboxykinase

PER : pre-edited region

PerCP : peridinin chlorophyll protein

perf : perforating

PERK : type I transmembrane ER-resident protein kinase

PERT : 1) product-enhanced reverse transcriptase ; 2) phenol emulsion reassociation technique

PES : polyethersulfone

PEST : Pro-Glu-Ser-Thr

PET : 1) phosphoethanolamine (PEt) ; 2) positron emission tomography

PETA : people for the ethical treatment of animals

PEV : position effect variegation

PEX : peritoneal exudate (PEx)

PF : 1) pentoxifylline ; 2) platelet factor

PFA : 1) phosphonoformate ; 2) perifornical area

PFC : plaque forming cell

PFD : polyostotic fibrous displasy

PfEMP : Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein

PFGE : pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

PFK : phosphofructokinase

PFP : pore-forming protein (i.e. : perforin)

PFR : peptide-flanking residue

PFS : progression-free survival

PFSL : Plasmodium falciparum schizont lysate (PfSL)

PFT : pulmonary function test

PFU : 1) pock-forming unit ; 2) plaque-forming unit

PG : 1) phosphatidyl glycerol ; 2) phosphoglycerate ; 3) prostaglandin

PGA : 3-phosphoglyceric acid

PGC : 1) primordial germ cell ; 2) PPARgco-activator

PGDB : pathway/genome DB

PGI : phosphoglucose isomerase

PGIA : proteoglycan-induced arthritis

PGK : phosphoglycerate kinase

PGL : 1) persistent generalized lymphadenopathy ; 2) phenolic glycolipid

PGM : phosphoglycerate mutase

PGN : peptidoglycan

PGP : P-glycoprotein (PgP)

PGRP : peptidoglycan-recognition protein

PGS : prostaglandin synthase

PGT : prostaglandin translocator

PH : 1) pleckstrin homology (domain) ; 2) Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) ; 3) phenyl (Ph) ; 4) past history

PHA : 1) phytohemagglutinin ; 2) passive haemagglutination (test)

PHB : 1) poly-b-hydroxybutirrate ; 2) prohibitin (domain)

Phe : phenylalanine

Pheo : pheophytin

PHF : paired helical filament

PHHI : persistent hyperinsulinaemic hypoglicaemia

PHI : 1) primary HIV infection ; 2) peptide His-Ile

PHK : phosphorylase kinase

PHM : 1) peptide His-Met ; 2) peptidylglycine-hydroxylating monooxygenase

PHN : passive Heymann nephritis

PHOX : phagocyte oxidase (PHOX / phox)

PHSC : pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell

PHT : pulmonary hypertension

PHV : poly-b-hydroxyvalerate

PHYTO : phytochrome (-like domain)

PI : 1) propidium iodide ; 2) phosphatidyl-Ins ; 3) isoelectric point (pI) ; 4) present illness ; 5) postinfection (p.i.)

PI(3)-K : phosphoinositide 3-kinase

PIA : pristane-induced arthritis

PIAS : protein inhibitor of activated STAT

PIBF : progesterone induced blocking factor

PIC : 1) polymorphism information content ; 2) phosphate carrier (PiC)

PICK : PDZ-domain-containing protein that interacts with C kinase

PICO : 1) patient/problem, intervention, comparison, outcomes ; 2) 10-12(pico)

PID : 1) pelvic inflammatory disease ; 2) protein interaction density

PIE : post-infective encephalitis

PIF : 1) peak inspiratory flow ; 2) PRL-release inhibiting factor

PIFR : peak inspiratory flow rate

PIG : PI glycan

PIGR : polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR)

PiGV : Plodia interpunctella granulovirus

PIM: phosphatidylinositol mannoside

PIN : penile intraepithelial neoplasia

PINC : protective, interactive, non-condensing (polymer)

Pins : partner of Inscuteable

PINT : proteasome subunits, Int-6, Nip-1 and TRIP-15 (motif)

PIP : 1) percentage identity plot ; 2) proximal interphalangeal (joint)

PIP2 : 1) phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate ; 2) phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate

PIP3 : phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate

PIPES : piperazine-N,N'-bis(2-ethanesulfonic acid) (buffer)

PIR : paired Ig-like receptor

PIS : polled intersex syndrome

PISA : programme for international student assessment

PIT : peptide-based immunotherapy

PIVKA : proteins induced by vitamin K absence

PJS : Peutz-Jeghers syndrome

PK : 1) protein kinase ; 2) Pyr kinase ; 3) prekallikrein

PKA : protein kinase cAMP dependent

PKC : protein kinase Ca2+-dependent

PKD : 1) polycystic kidney disease (domain) ; 2) protein kinase D

PKI : protein kinase inhibitor

PKN : protein kinase N

PKR : dsRNA-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase

PKS : polyketide synthase

PKU : phenylketonuria

PL : 1) phospholipase ; 2) placental lactogen ; 3) path length ; 4) plasma (pl) ; 5) placebo

PLAD : pre-ligand-binding asembly domain

PLAP : PLA2-activating protein

PLB : 1) phospholambane; 2) phospholipase B ; 3) passive lysis buffer

PLEC : plectin (repeat)

pleckstrin : platelet and leukocyte C-kinase substrate protein

PLF : peritoneal lavage fluid

PLGA : poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)

PlGF : placental growth factor

Plk : Polo-like kinase

PLL : poly-L-lysine

PLML/R : posterior ventral microtubule cell left/right

PLN : 1) peripheral lymph node ; 2) pancreatic lymph node

PLP : 1) pyridoxal-5-phosphate ; 2) proteolipid protein

PLPE : preparative liquid-phase electrophoresis

PLT : platelet (concentration)

PLZF : promyelocytic leukaemia zinc finger

PM : 1) plasma membrane ; 2) post meridiem (i.e. : after noon) (p.m.) ; 3) post mortem (i.e. : after death) ; 4) particulate matter (of mean diameter less than number) (PMnumber) ; 5) pretibial myxoedema ; 6) polymyositis ; 7) pacemaker ; 8) POZ minus

PMA : phorbol myristoyl acetate

PMC : post-mitotic cell

PMCA : plasma-membrane Ca2+-ATPase

PMB : 1) polymyxin B ; 2) plasmid (created by) Mary Betlach (pMB)

PMDI : pressurized metered-dose inhalers  (pMDI)

PME : 1) phosphomonoester ; 2) particle mesh Ewald (algorithm)

PMEA : 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine

PMEF : primary MEF

PMF : 1) proton motive force (pmf/PMF) ; 2) phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride ; 3) potential of mean force

PMH : past medical history

PMHC : peptide/MHC (complex) (pMHC)

PML : 1) promyelocytic leukaemia ; 2) progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

PMMA : polymethylmethacrylate

PMN : polymorphonuclear (leukocyte)

p-MNT : 2-(4-methoxy-3-hydroxyphenyl)-naphto[1,2-d]thiazole

PMO : morpholino oligodeoxynucleotide

PMR : polymyalgia rheumatica

PMS : phenazine methosulfate

PMSF : phenylmethylsulfonyl (or phenylmethanesulfonyl) fluoride

PMT : photomultiplier tube

PN : 1) peanut ; 2) peripheral neuropathy

PNA : 1) p-nitroanilide (pNA) ; 2) peptide nucleic acid ; 3) pentose nucleic acid ; 4) peanut agglutinin

PNAD : peripheral node addressin (PNAd)

PNAS : proceedings of the national academy of sciences (of the U.S.A.)

PNC : pneumococcal C-polysaccharide (PnC)

PNG : Papua New Guinea

PNH : paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

PNI : psychoneuroimmunology

PNIF : peak nasal inspiratory flow

PNMT : phenyl-ethanolamine-N-methyltransferase

PNP : purine nucleoside phosphorylase

PNPH : p-nitrophenol hydroxylase

PNS : 1) peripheral nervous system ; 2) positive and negative selection

PO : 1) postoperative ; 2) per os (i.e. : by mouth) (p.o.) ; 3) peroxidase

POAG : primary open-angle glaucoma

POC : particulate organic carbon

POD : 1) PML oncogenic domain ; 2) postoperative day

Pol : polymerase

POMC : proopiomelanocortin

POMP : proteasome maturation protein

POMS : profile of mood states

PON : partner of Numb

POP : persistent organic polluttant

POPC : 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine

POPE : 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine

POPG : 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidyl glycerol

pos : positive

POSCH : program on the surgical control of the hyperlipidemias

POSH : plenty of SH3 domains

postop : postoperative

POVPC : 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine

POW : 1) prisoner of war ; 2) Powassan (encephalitis virus)

POZ : pox virus and ZF domain

PP : 1) pancreatic polypeptide ; 2) postpartum ; 3) phosphoprotein (Ser/Thr) phosphatase ; 4) pyrophosphate (if inorganic : PPi) ; 5) Peyer's patch ; 6) pyrazolo pyrimidine

PPAR : peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor

PPB : part per billion (ppb)

PPD : 1) persistent pigment darkening ; 2) purified protein derivative

PPF : periportal fibrosis

ppGpp : guanosine 5'-diphosphate-3'-diphosphate

PPI : peptidyl-prolyl (cis-trans) isomerase

PPK : 1) poly(Pi) kinase ; 2) pickpocket

PPLO : pleuropneumonia-like organisms

PPM : part per million (ppm)

PPNG : penicillinase producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae

PPP : 1) platelet poor plasma ; 2) pyrophosphate (if inorganic : PPPi)

pppGpp : guanosine 5'-triphosphate-3'-diphosphate

PPRE : PPAR response element

PPS : penoxyethanol-phosphate-sucrose

PPT : 1) preprotachykinin ; 2) precipitate ; 3) polypurine tract ; 4) polypyrimidine tract

PPX : exopolyphosphatase

PQ : plastoquinone

PQQ : pyrroloquinoline-quinone

PR : 1) progesterone receptor ; 2) propyl (Pr) ; 3) protease ; 4) 5-phosphoribose ; 5) Pro-rich (region) ; 6) proteinase

PRA : 1) 5-phosphoribosylamine ; 2) plasma renin activity

PRAK : p38 regulated activated kinase

PRC : pre-replication complex

PRE : prolactin-responsive element

prep : prepare, preparation, preparative

PRF : prolactin-releasing factor

PRINS : primed in situ labelling

(PriO)2PO-F : Dip-F

PRK : (lipid-activated) PKC-related kinase

PRL : prolactin

PRN : pro re nata (i.e.: as required, as the occasion arises) (p.r.n.)

pRNA : packaging RNA

Pro : proline

prog : prognosis

PROP : 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil

Pros : Prospero

PRL : prolactin

PRN : plaque reduction neutralization

PROD : 7-pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase

PRP : 1) prion protein (PrP) ; 2) platelet-rich plasma ; 3) progressive rubella panencephalitis

PRPP : 5-phosphoribosyl-1-a-D-PP

PRR : 1) pattern recognition receptor ; 2) post-replicative repair

PRS : proline-rich sequence

PS : 1) phosphatidylserine ; 2) photosystem ; 3) presenilin ; 4) pseudosubstrate (domain) ; 5) polysaccharide ; 6) progesterone

PSA : 1) psoriatic arthritis (PSA / PsA) ; 2) prostate-specific Ag ; 3) puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase

PSA-LM : PSA-linked molecule

PSC : 1) primary sclerosing cholangitis ; 2) plasmid Stanley Cohen (pSC)

PSD : 1) post-synaptic density ; 2) post-source decay ; 3) pattern standard deviation

PSG : phosphate buffered saline glucose

PSGL : P-selectin glycoprotein ligand

PSI : 1) proteasome inhibitor I ; 2) pound per square inch (psi)

PSM : professional science master

PSP : 1) progressive sopranuclear palsy ; 2) persephin

PSS : porcine stress syndrome

PS-SPCL : positional scanning SPCL

Pst : 1) Providencia stuarti ; 2) Pi-specific transport system (Pst)

PSTI : pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor

PSTV : potato spindle tuber virus

PSTVd : potato spindle tuber Vd

PSV : pressure support ventilation

PSVT : paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia

PT : 1) physical therapy, physiotherapy ; 2) patient (pt) ; 3) prothrombin time ; 4) permeability transition

PTA : pre-TcR a-chain (pTa)

PTAC : pore-targeting complex

PTAH : phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin

PTB : 1) phosphotyrosine binding (domain) ; 2) polypyrimidine tract-binding protein

PTBI : PTB-IRS1-like (domain)

PTC : 1) patched (Ptc) ; 2) papillary thyroid carcinoma ; 3) premature termination codon ; 4) phosphatidylcholine (PtC)

PTCA : percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

PTD : protein transduction domain

P-TEF : positive transcription elongation factor

PTEN : p(hosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome) ten

PTFE : polytetrafluoroethylene

PTG : proteoglycan

PTGS : post-transcriptional gene silencing

PTH : 1) phenylthiohydantoin ; 2) parathyroid hormone (PTH/pTH)

PTI : plant trypsin inhibitor (domain)

PTIO : 2-phenyl-4,4,5,6-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide

PTK : protein-tyrosine kinase

PTL : pharyngo-tracheal lumen

PTLD : posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder

PTMA : phenyltrimethylammonium

PTN : pleiotrophin (domain)

PTP : 1) permeability transition pore; 2) phosphoprotein tyrosine phosphatase

PTS : post-thrombotic syndrome

PTSAg : pyrogenic toxin SAg

PTT : 1) protein truncation test ; 2) partial thromboplastin time

PTTG : pituitary tumor-transforming gene

PTX : 1) pertussis toxin (PTX) ; 2) pentraxin (domain)

Pu : purine

PUA : pseudouridine synthase and Archaeosine transglycosylase (putative RNA-binding domain)

PUFA : polyunsaturated fatty acid

pulm : pulmone, pulmonary

PUVA : psoralen +UV-A (therapy)

PV : polycithaemia vera

Pv(+) : predictive value of a positive test

Pv(-) : predictive value of a negative test

PVAS : polyvinylalcohol sulphate

PVC : 1) premature ventricular complex ; 2) polyvinylchloride

PVDF : polyvinylidene difluoride

PVDF-HFP : a copolymer of vinylidene difluoride and hexafluoropropylene

PVN : paraventricular nucleus

PVP : polyvinylpyrrolidone

PVR : 1) proliferative vitreoretinopathy ; 2) polio virus receptor ; 3) pulmonary vascularisation rate

PVS : polyvinylsulphonate

PX : PhoX (homologous domain)

PXA : PX associated (domain)

PXR : pregnane X receptor

PWM : Pokeweed mitogen

Py : pyrimidine

PyC : pyruvate carrier

PYK : Pro-rich tyrosine kinase

PyP : pyridoxal-phosphate

Pyr : pyruvic acid

PyV : polyomaviridae

PZA : pyrazinamide

- Q -

# ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP Q RSTUVWXYZ

Q : 1) queue (chromosome arm) (q) ; 2) CoQ ; 3) Gln ; 4) coancestry coefficient ; 5) plastoquinon ; 6) quaque (i.e. : every) (q) ; 7) quotient ; 8) queuosine (q)

Q1 : first quartile (Q1)

Q2H : quaque secunda hora (i.e. : every second hour) (q.2h)

Q3 : third quartile (Q3)

QBC : quantitative buffy coat

QC : quality control

QC-PCR : quantitative/competitive PCR

QD : quaque die (i.e. : every day) (q.d.)

QED : quantum electrodynamics

QH : quaque hora (i.e. : every hour) (q.h.)

QID : quater in die (i.e. : four times a day) (q.i.d)

QL : quantum libet (i.e. : as much as pleased ) (q.l.)

QN : quaque nocte (every night) (q.n.)

QOL : quality of life

QP : quantum placet (i.e. : at will) (q.p.)

QPCR : quantitative PCR

QQH : quaque quarta hora (i.e. : every 4 hours) (q.q.h.)

QS : quantum satis (i.e. : a sufficient quantity) (q.s.)

QSAR : quantitative structure-activity relationships

QT : quart (qt)

QTL : quantitative trait locus / loci

QV : quantum vis (i.e. : as much as liked) (q.v.)

- R -

# ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQ R STUVWXYZ

R : 1) receptor ((-)R) ; 2) ribosomal (r) ; 3) resistance (R/R) ; 4) regulatory subunit ; 5) reductase ((-)R) ; 6) perfect gas constant (R) ; 7) Arg ; 8) Ray (unit) ; 9) coefficient of correlation (sample : r ; multiple : R) ; 10) reverse (staining) ; 11) Rattus norvegicus homologous ; 12) rectus (i.e : right) (R) ; 13) relaxed (conformation) ; 14) purine ; 15) reconstituted (r) ; 16) registered (®) ; 17) Rydberg (constant) ; 18) rat (R)

R5P : ribose-5-phosphate

RA : 1) refrectory anemia ; 2) retinoic acid ; 3) rheumatoid arthritis ; 4) Ras association (domain) ; 5) right atrium

Rab : ra(t) b(rain)

RAC : recombinant DNA advisory committee

RACE : 1) rapid amplification of cDNA ends ; 2) RecA-assisted restriction cleavage by endonuclease

RACK : receptor for activated C-kinase

RAE : retinoic acid inducible (gene)

RAEB : refractory anemia with excess blasts

RAFI : rural advancement foundation international

RAFT : rapamycin and FKBP12 target

Rag : recombinase-activating gene

RAGE : receptor for AGE

RAIDD : RIP-associated ICH/CED-3-homologous protein with a DD

RAIU : radioactive iodide uptake

RALES : randomized aldactone evaluation study

RAM : 1) random access memory ; 2) radioactive material

RAMCM : RNase A mismatch cleavage method

RAMP : 1) random amplified multiple polymorphism ; 2) receptor activity-modifying protein

Ran : Ras-related nuclear protein

RanBP : Ran binding protein

RANK : receptor activator of NF-kB

RANKL : RANK ligand

RANTES : regulated on activation,  normal T-cell expressed and secreted

RAP : 1) rap(amycin) (Rap) ; 2) receptor-associated protein ; 3) random-amplified polymorphic (DNA) ; 4) reduced AP (site)

RAP-PCR : RNA-fingerprinting arbitrary primer PCR

RAPD : randomly amplified polymorphic DNA

RAR : retinoic acid receptor

RARE : retinoic acid RE

RARS : refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts

RAS : 1) renin-angiotensin system ; 2) rat sarcome

RASMC : rat aortic smooth muscle cell

RAST : radioallergosorbent test

RAW : resistance of airways

RB : 1) retinoblastoma protein ; 2) right border ; 3) ruffled border

RBC : red blood cell (concentration)

RBD : 1) Rho binding domain ; 2) Ras binding domain ; 3) RNA binding domain

RBE : relative biological effectiveness

RBIP : retrotransposon-based  insertion polymorphisms

RBL : 1) rat basophilic leukemia ; 2) reticulocyte-binding-like (protein)

RBM : 1) reconstituted basement membrane (rBM) ; 2) roll back malaria (initiative) ; 3) reticular basement membrane

RBP : 1) Rb binding protein ; 2) retinol binding protein

RBS . ribosome binding site

RC : replication complex

RCA : 1) rolling circle amplification ; 2) regulator of complement activation ; 3) rDNA advisory committee ; 4) replication competent adenovirus

RCAS : rat Con A supernatant

RCC : renal cell carcinoma

RCCX : RP, C4, CYP21, TNX

RCL : replication competent lentivirus

RCR : 1) replication competent retrovirus ; 2) relative cytotoxic response

RCS : recognition consensus sequence

RCV : right superior cava vein

RD : 1) research and development (R&D) ; 2) region of deletion

RDA : 1) representational display analysis ; 2) recommended daily (or dietary) allowance ; 3) representational difference analysis ; 4) RNA/DNA oligonucleotides

RDD : rational drug design

RDGF : retina-derived GF

RDRP : RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

RDV : rice dwarf virus

RDW : RBC distribution width

RE : 1) responsive (or response) element ; 2) restriction enzyme (endonuclease)

REAL : revised European American lymphoma (classification)

REC : recombinant (rec)

REF : 1) redox factor (Ref) ; 2) restriction endonuclease fingerprinting

reg : regular

Rel : re(ticu)l(oendotheliosys)

RELM : resistin-like molecule

Reoviridae : respiratory enteric orphan viruses

REP-PCR : repeat sequence primed PCR

REM : 1) rapid eye movement ; 2) roentgen equivalent for man (Rem) (unit)

REMI : restriction enzyme mediated integration

REP : repetitive extragenic palindromic (PCR)

req : requires, required

RER : rough endoplasmic reticulum

RES : reticuloendothelial system

resp : respectively

REST : RE-1 silencing TF

RET : 1) resonance energy transafer ; 2) re(arranged during) t(ransfection) (ret)

REV : 1) replicating episomal vector ; 2) reticuloendotheliosis virus

REVS : rupture event scanning

RF : 1) release factor ; 2) replicative form ; 3) reading frame ; 4) radio frequency ; 5) retardation factor ; 6) replication factor ; 7) rheumatoid factor

RFI : request for information

RFLP : restriction fragment length polymorphism

RFMF : radio-frequency magnetic field

RFP : red fluorescent protein

RFR : radiofrequency (electromagnetic) radiation

RFS : relapse-free survival

RFTOC : reaggregated fetal thymus organ cultures

RFX : regulatory factor X

RG : Rodgers (blood group Ag) (Rg)

RGC : retinal ganglion cell

RGD : Arg-Gly-Asp

RG-PCR : restriction-site-generating PCR

RGS : regulator of G protein signaling (domain)

RH : 1) RNA helicase; 2) releasing hormone ; 3) (macacus) Rhesus (factor in blood) (Rh) ; 4) radiation hybrids ; 5) rhodopsin (Rh) ; 6) rapid/high (HIV-1 strain) (R/H)

RHD : 1) rheumatic heart disease ; 2) Rel homology domain

Rho : R(as) ho(mology)

RHR : Rel homology region

RIA : radioimmunoassay

Rib : ribose

RIBA : recombinant immunoblot assay

RICH : rapid isolation of cDNA by hybridization

RIE : reactive ion etching

RIL : recombinant inbred line

RIND : reversible ischemic neurologic deficit

RIP : 1) receptor-interacting protein ; 2) repeat-induced point mutation ; 3) rat insulin promoter

RIPA : 1) ristocetin induced platelet aggregation ; 2) radioimmunoprecipitation assay

RIPP : ribosomal inhibitor of PP

RIS : radioimmunoscintigraphy

RIST : radioimmunosorbent test

RK : 1) rhodopsin kinase ; 2) (HMG-CoA) reductase kinase ; 3) rabbit kidney ; 4) reactivating kinase

RKK : (HMG-CoA) reductase kinase kinase

rHu : recombinant human

RI : replicative intermediate

RIL : recombinant inbred lines

RIP : ribosome-inactivating protein

RLD : right lateral decubitus

RLE : retrovirus-like element

RLF : replication licensing factor

RLGS : restriction landmarks genomic scanning

RLP : Rab-like protein

RL-RT-PCR : RNA ligase RT-PCR

RLS : restless leg syndrome

RLU : relative light unit

Rluc : Renilla reniformis luciferase

RLX : relaxin

RM : reaction mixture

RMCP : rat mast cell protease

RMR : resting metabolic rate

RMS : 1) rhabdomyosarcoma ; 2) root-mean-square (rms)

RMSF : Rocky Mountain spotted fever

RMU : respiratory mechanical unloading

RNA : ribonucleic acid

RNAi : RNA interference

RNI : reactive nitrogen intermediate

RNP : ribonucleoprotein

RO : reflux oesophagitis

ROA : Ramon optical density

ROCK : Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase

ROI : reactive oxygen intermediate

ROK : Rho kinase

ROM : 1) rod outer segment protein ; 2) read only memory

ROP : retinopathy of prematurity

ROR : 1) receptor orphan ; 2) retinoid-related orphan receptor

ROS : 1) reactive oxygen species ; 2) rod outer segment

RP : 1) replication protein ; 2) reversed phase ; 3) refractory period ; 4) red pulp ; 5) reverse primer (rp) ; 6) random peptide

RPA : RNase protection assay

Rp-8-pCPT-cGMPS : 8-(4-chlorophenylthio-)guanosine-3'-5' cyclic monophosphorothioate

RPC : retinal progenitor cell

RPE : 1) relative predispositional effect ; 2) retinal pigment epithelium

RPK : ripped pocket

RPM : 1) rapamycin ; 2) revolutions per minute (rpm)

RPase : RNA polymerase

RPL : random peptide library

Rpo : RNA polymerase

RPR : rapid plasma reagin (test)

RPTK : receptor PTK

RQ : respiratory quotient

RR : 1) response region ; 2) relative risk

RRA : radioreceptor assay

RRC : renal resident cell

RRE : rev RE

RRM : RNA recognition motif

RRT : recognition reaction time

RS : replacement to silent (mutation ratio) (R/S)

RSA : rapid serum agglutination

RSD : relative standard deviation

RSI : repetitive strain injury

RSK : ribosomal S6 kinase

RSO : radiation safety officer

RSP : restriction site polymorphism

RSPCA : Royal Society for the prevention of cruelty to animals

RSS : recombination signal sequence

rSSCP : RNA SSCP

RSSE : Russian Spring-Summer encephalitis (virus)

RSV : 1) Rous sarcoma virus  ; 2) respiratory syncytial virus

RT : 1) reverse transcriptase ; 2) room temperature (R.T.) ; 3) right (rt)

rT3 : reverse T3

RTA : renal tubular antigen

RTE : recent thymic emigrants

RTF : 1) rich text format ; 2) resistance transfer factor

RTK : receptor tyrosine kinase

RTLV : retrovirus-like element

rTMS : repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

RTOC : reaggregate thymus organ culture

RTR : right terminal repeat

RTV : ritonavir

RTX : repeats in toxin

RU : 1) resonance unit ; 2) ribulose (Ru) ; 3) relative unit

Rubisco : RuBP decarboxylase

RuBP : ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate

RXR : retinoid X (or rexinoid) receptor

RV : 1) residual volume ; 2) right ventricle ; 3) Rhinoviruses

RVF : Rift Valley fever

RyR : ryanodine receptor

- S -

# ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQR S TUVWXYZ

S : 1) smallest form among isoforms derived from an alternatively spliced mRNA (S) ; 2) small subunit ribosomal protein ; 3) surface form (s) ; 4) svedberg (unit) ; 5) synthesis (cell cycle phase) ; 6) second (s) ; 7) sedimentation coefficient (S) ; 8) Ser ; 9) synthesis (phase) ; 10) subsite ; 11) secretory ; 12) entrophy (S) ; 13) subfragment ; 14) stem (cell) ; 15) splenic ; 16) secretin ; 17) soluble ; 18) spike (glycoprotein); 19) sine (i.e. : without) (s) ; 20) sinister (i.e. : left) (S) ; 21) orbit, electron in such an orbit (s) ; 22) strong interaction (i.e. : C or G in base codes) ; 23) switch region

S1P : sphingosine 1-phosphate

s2c : 2-thiocytidine

s2t : 5-methyl-2-thiouridine

s2u : 2-thiouridine

s4u : 4-thiouridine

S/N : signal-to-noise ratio

S6K : S6 (protein) kinase

S7P : sedoheptulose-7-phosphate

SA : 1) stretch-activated ; 2) specific activity ; 3) sinoatrial (node) ; 4) streptavidin

SAA : serum amyloid A (protein domain)

SAAB : selected and amplified (protein) binding site oligonucleotide

SABA : 1) short-acting b2 agonist ; 2) sialic-acid-binding adhesin (SabA)

SABC : streptavidin-biotin complex (sABC)

SABGAL : senescence-associated b-galattosidase (SA-b-gal)

SAC : Staphylococcus aureus Cowan

SADBE : squaric acid dibutyl-ester

SADS : small accelerator for death signalling

SAE : serious adverse event

SAEC : small airway epithelial cell

SAF : scrapie-associated fibril

SAg : super Ag

SAGE : serial analysis of gene expression

SAGT : superantigenic toxins

SAH : S-adenosylhomocysteine

SAHA : suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid

SA-HRP : streptavidin-conjugated HRPO

SAICAR : N-succinyl-5-aminoimidazhole-4-carboxyamide ribonucleotide

SAIDS : simian AIDS

SALT : skin-associated lymphoid tissue

SAM : 1) sterile alpha motif ; 2) S-adenosylmethionine ; 3) substrate adhesion molecule

SAMPL : selective amplification of microsatellite polymorphic loci

SAP : 1) SRF accessory protein  ; 2) stress-activated protein ; 3) SLAM-associated protein ; 4) serum amyloid P component

SAPHO : synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, osteomyelitis

SAPK : stress-activated protein kinase

SAR : 1) scaffold-attached (associated) region ; 2) sarcosine (Sar) ; 3) specific absorption rate ; 4) structure-activity relationship ; 5) surface area-to-volume ratio ; 6) systemic acquired resistance ; 7) seasonal allergic rhinitis

SARA : SMAD anchor for receptor activation

SAS : serological Ag selection

SAT : 1) serum agglutination test ; 2) spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis

SATB : special AT-rich sequence-binding  (protein)

SB : 1) Southern blot ; 2) small bowel

SBAR : situation background assessment and recommendation

SBC : secretory breast carcinoma

sBLA : supplemental biologics license application

SBMA : spinobulbar muscular atrophy

SBP : systemic blood pressure

SBR : 1) saliva binding region ; 2) styrene-butadiene rubber

SC : 1) single copy (sc) ; 2) subcutaneous(ly) (s.c.) ; 3) scrapie (Sc) ; 4) small cytoplasmic (sc) ; 5) Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc) ; 6) secretory component ; 7) spleen cell

SCA : 1) SREBP cleavage activity ; 2) sickle cell anaemia ; 3) spinocerebellar ataxia ; 4) stem cell antigen

SCAD : short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase

SCAP : SREBP cleavage-activating protein

SCAR : sequence characterized amplified regions

SCC : squamous cell carcinoma

SCD : sickle cell disease

SCDA : standard cell diluition analysis

SCE : sister chromatids exchange

SCF : 1) Skp, Cul1 and F-box-containing (protein complex); 2) stem cell factor

scFv : single chain Fv

SCGE : single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay)

SCI : science citation index

SCID : severe combined immunodeficiency

SCL : stem-cell leukaemia

SCM : single C motif

SCMoV : subterranean clover mottle virusoid

SCN : 1) sodium channel ; 12) soprachiasmatic nuclei

SCNN : non-voltage-gated sodium channel

SCNT : somatic cell nuclear transfer

SCORAD : scoring atopic dermatitis

SCP : saline-citrate-phosphate

SCR : short consensus repeat

SCRIB : scribble (Scrib)

SCT : 1) stem cell transplantation ; 2) single-chain trimers (of MHC class I molecules)

SD : 1) standard deviation ; 2) solvent/detergent (S/D) ; 3) short-day

SDA : strand displacement amplification

SDAT : senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type

SDC : splenic dendritic cell

SDF : 1) small DNA fragments ; 2) stromal cell-derived factor

SDH : sorbitol dehydrogenase

Sdi : senescence DNA synthesis inhibitor

SDIP : spleen-derived immunosuppressive peptide

SDM : site-directed mutagenesis

SDR : specificity-determining residue

SDS : sodium dodecyl sulfate

SE : standard error

SEA : 1) soluble egg antigen ; 2) staphylococcal enterotoxin A ; 3) seronegative entesitis arthritis

SEAC : surface-enhanced affinity capture ; 2) spongiform encephalopathy advisory committee

SEAP : secreted alkaline phosphatase

SEB : staphylococcal enterotoxin B

SEC : 1) selenocysteine (Sec) ; 2) staphylococcal enterotoxin C ; 3) second (sec) ; 4) secondary (sec)

SECR : serpin enzyme complex receptor (sec-R)

SED : 1) staphylococcal enterotoxin D ; 2) spectral energy distribution

SEDTA : saline EDTA

SEE : 1) staphylococcal enterotoxin E ; 2) standard error of the estimate

SELDI : surface-enhanced laser-desorption/ionization

SELEX : systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment

SEM : 1) scanning electron microscopy ; 2) standard error of the mean

Sema : semaphorin

SEMF : subepithelial myofibroblast

SENP : sentrin-specific protease

Sep : septin

SEPS : subfascial endoscopic perforator surgery

SER : 1) smooth endoplasmic reticulum ; 2) serine (Ser) ; 3) sensitizer enhancement ratio

SERCA : SR/ER Ca2+ ATPase

SERENDIP : search for extraterrestrial radio emissions from nearby developed intelligent populations

SEREX : serologic analysis of recombinant cDNA expression libraries

SERM : selective estrogen receptor modulator

SERPIN : Ser proteinase inhibitors (domain)

SERT : serotonine transporter

SET : Su(var)3-9, Enhancer-of-zeste, Trithorax (domain)

SETI : search for extraterrestrial intelligence

SEV : Sendai virus

SF : 1) superfamily ; 2) scatter factor

SFC : spot-forming cell

SFFV : spleen focus forming virus

SFHR : small fragment homologous replacement

SFK : Src family kinase

SFV : 1) Semliki forest virus ; 2) simian foamy virus

SG : skin graft

SGC : soluble guanylyl cyclase (SGC/sGC)

SGEC : salivary gland epithelial cell

SGLT : sodium-glucose cotransporter

SGOT : serum Glu-OAA transaminase

SGPG : sulphated glucuronyl paragloboside

SGPT : serum Glu-Pyr transaminase

SGT : secretion gene therapy

SH : Src-homology (domain)

Shc : SH2-containing a2 collagen-related proteins

Shh : Sonic hedgehog

SHIP : SH2 domain-containing inositol-5-phosphatase

SHP : SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase

SHR : spontaneously hypertensive rat

SI : 1) small interfering (si) ; 2) seriously ill ; 3) syncitia inducing (HIV-1 strain) ; 4) small intestine ; 5) staining intensity ; 6) stimulation index ; 7) selectivity index

Sia : sialyc acid

SIADH : syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH

SIDS : sudden infant death syndrome

SIE : c-Sis inducible element

SIF : STH-release inhibiting factor

SIFT : scanning for intensely fluorescent targets

Sig. : signed

siglec : Sia-binding Ig-like lectin

SIL : seriously ill list

SIM : selected ion monitoring

SIMDM : supplemented IMDM

SIMDM-PRF : SIMDM phenol-red-free

SI-MS : secondary-ion bombardment mass spectroscopy

SIMV : synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation

SIN : 1) self-inactivating ; 2) septation intiation network

SINE . short interspersed element

SIR : 1) standardized incidence ratio ; 2) silent information regulator

SIRP : signal regulatory protein

SIRS : systemic inflammatory response syndrome

Sis : si(mian) s(arcoma)

SISI : sound intensity shift index

SIT : 1) specific immunotherapy ; 2) structured intermittent therapy

SIV . simian immunodeficiency virus

SJC : swollen joint count

SK : streptokinase

SKP : S-phase kinase associated protein

SKY : spectral karyotyping

SL : 1) spliced leader ; 2) stromelysin ; 3) slow/low (HIV-1 strain) (S/L)

SLAM : signalling lymphocyte activation molecule

SLC : 1) solute carrier ; 2) secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine ; 3) surrogate L chain

SLE : 1) systemic lupus erythematosus ; 2) Saint Louis encephalitis

SLF : 1) steel factor ; 2) shock lung factor

SLIT : sublingual immunotherapy

SLO : streptolysin O

SLP : 1) sex-limited protein (slp) ; 2) substrate level phosphorylation ; 3) SH2 domain leukocyte protein ; 4) solid lipid particle

SLPI : secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor

SLS : segmentary long-spaced (collagen)

SLT : Shiga-like toxin

SM : somatomedin

SMA : 1) smooth muscle actin; 2) spinal muscular atrophy

SMAC : 1) second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac) ; 2) supramolecular activation cluster ; 3) a-smooth muscle actin (SMAc)

Smad : contraction of Sma and Mad

SMAP : small MBL-associated protein

SMase : sphingomyelinase

SMC : 1) smooth muscle cell ; 2) submicrovillar cisterna ; 3) structural maintenance of chromosome

SMCC : 1) succinimidyl 4-(N-maleimidomethyl) cyclohexane-1-carboxylate ; 2) Srb and mediator protein-containing complex

SMEZ : streptococcal mitogenic exotoxin Z

SMI : score of mucosal injury

Smo : smoothened

SMP : submitochondrial particle

SMPB : succinimidyl 4-(p-maleidophenyl) butyrate

SMR : 1) standardized mortality ratio ; 2) standard metabolic rate

SMRT : silencing mediator for retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor

SMRV : squirrel monkey retrovirus

SMZ : sulfamethoxazole

SN : 1) small nuclear (sn) ; 2) standard numbering (sn) ; 3) substitution nucleophile (SN) (reaction) ; 4) staphylococcal nuclease (homologues) ; 5) substantia nigra

SNAP : 1) soluble NSF attachment protein ; 2) single nucleotide amplified polymorphisms ; 3) S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D-L-penicillamine

SNARE : SNA(P) re(ceptor)

SNMV : solanum nodiflorum mottle virusoid

snoRNA : small nucleolar RNA

SNP : 1) sodium nitroprusside ; 2) single nucleotide polymorphism

SNRI : serotonin and norepinephrin reuptake inhibitor

snrp : snRNA-protein (complex)

snuRNA : small nucleolar RNA

SO : somatomedin (domain)

SOCE : store-operated Ca2+ entry

SOCS : suppressors of cytokine signalling (box)

SOD : superoxide dismutase

SODD : oculo-dento-digital syndrome

SODN : phosphorothioate ODN (S-ODN)

sol : solution

SOM : somatostatin

SOP : sensory organ precursor (cell)

SOS : 1) son of sevenless (Sos) ; 2) save our souls (S.O.S. / Sos) ; 3) superoxide scavenging

SOX : SRY-related HMG box protein

SP : 1) substance P ; 2) signal peptide ; 3) Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Sp) ; 4) single-positive ; 5) surfactant protein ; 6) slow progressor

sp act : specific activity

SPA : scintillation proximity assay

SPAR : single primer amplification reaction

SPB : spindle pole bodies

SPC : structure-property correlations

SPCL : synthethic peptide combinatory library

SPE : 1) solid-phase extraction ; 2) solid polymer electrolyte ; 3) streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin; 4) serum protein electrophoresis

SPEC : 1) specimen ; 2) spectrin (domain)

SPECT : single photon emission computed tomography

SPEP : serum protein electrophoresis

SPF : 1) spectrophotofluorimetry ; 2) specific pathogen-free ; 3) sun protection factor ; 4) S-phase promoting factor

sp.fl. : spinal fluid

SPG : sucrose phosphate glutamic acid

Sph : sphyngomyelin

SPHERE : solid-phase epitope recovery

SPI : Salmonella pathogenicity island

SPICE : smallpox inhibitor of complement enzyme

SPIFE : serum protein immunofixation electrophoresis

SPK : 1) (glycogen) synthase-phosphorylase kinase  ; 2) stress-related protein kinase

SPL : spleen

SPN : Streptococcus pyogenes NAD-glycohydrolase

SPR : 1) surface plasmon resonance ; 2) surfactant protein receptor

SPRIA : solid-phase RIA

SPS : sodium polyanetholsulfonate

SPT : skin prock test

SqE : squalene synthase

SqE : squalene epoxidase

SR : 1) sarcoplasmic reticulum ; 2) scavenger receptor (domain) ; 3) steroid receptor ; 4) serum (sr)

SRBC : sheep RBC

SRC : 1) s(a)rc(ome) (src) ; 2) steroid receptor coactivator

SRE : serum RE

SREBP : sterol regulatory element-binding protein

SRF : serum response factor

SRFA : selective restriction fragment amplification

sRNA : soluble RNA (i.e. : tRNA)

SRP : signal-recognition particle

SRS-A : slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis

SRV : simian retrovirus

SRY : sex determining region of the Y chromosome

SS : 1) single-stranded (ss) ; 2) sesquiterpene synthase ; 3) signs and symptoms (S/S) ; 4) Sjögren's syndrome ; 5) systemic sclerosis

SSA : 1) streptococcal superantigen ; 2) single sample analysis (chip)

SSAO : serum semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase

SSAP : sequence specific amplification polymorphism

SSAT : spermidine/spermine acetylase

ssb : single-strand breaks

SSB(P) : single-stand B(P)

SSC : 1) saline sodium (or sodium salt) citrate (buffer) ; 2) standard saline citrate ; 3) somatic stem cell ; 4) skeletal stem cell

SSCI : social sciences citation index

SSCP : single-strand conformational polymorphism

SSH : suppression subtractive hybridization

SSIPCR : site-selected insertion PCR

SSLP : simple sequence lenght polymorphism

SSO : 1) specific spoilage organism ; 2) sequence specific oligonucleotide

SSP : 1) Sample Spot Number ; 2) sporozoite surface protein ; 3) sequence-specific primer

SSPE : subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

SSR : simple sequence repeat

SSRBC : sensitized sheep RBC

SSRI : selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

SSS : 1) Stanford sleepiness scale ; 2) scalded skin syndrome

SST : somatostatin

SSTR : simple sequence tandem repeat

SSU rRNA : small subunit ribosomal RNA

ST : 1) sialyl transferase ; 2) heat-stable toxin ; 3) signal transduction

STARI : Southern tick-associated rash illness

STAT : 1) signal transducer and activator of transcription ; 2) statim (i.e. : immediately) (stat)

STC : sequence tag connector

STCP : stimulated T-cell chemotactic protein

STD : 1) standard (std) ; 2) signal transduction domain ; 3) sexually transmitted disease

STE : sodium chloride, Tris, EDTA

STES : STE and sucrose

STFeSV : Snyder-Theilen feline sarcoma virus

STI : structured treatment interruption

STIR : short tau inversion recovery

STLV : simian T-lymphotropic virus

STM : scanning tunnelling microscope

STMS : sequence tagged microsatellite (site)

STNI : subtotal nodal irradiation

STP : 1) short-term potentiation ; 2) signal transduction pathway ; 3) standard temperature and pressure

STR : 1) neostriatum ; 2) short tandem repeat

STRP : STR polymorphism

STS : 1) sequence-tagged site ; 2) stilbene synthase ; 3) staurosporine

STX : saxitoxin

STZ : streptozotocin

SU : 1) sulfonylurea ; 2) surface (glycoprotein)

SUMO : small Ub-related modifier

SUR : sulphonylurea receptor

surg : surgeon, surgery

SUSP : SUMO-specific protease

SV : 1) stroke volume ; 2) sievert (unit) (Sv)

SV40 : simian vacuolating virus 40

SVAS : supravalvular aortic stenosis

SVZ : subventricular (germinal) zone

SWIB : SWI complex, BAF60b (domain)

SWS : slow wave sleep

Sx : symptom

Sxl : sex-lethal

sym : symmetric

symp : symptom

sys : system

- T -

# ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRS T UVWXYZ

T : 1) target (t) ; 2) truncated (t) ; 3) transfer (t) ; 4) thymidine ; 5) Thr ; 6) tele (t) ; 7) tera ; 8) tropomyosin-binding (calponin subunit) ; 9) transient ; 10) taut (conformation) ; 11) trasverse (tubule) ; 12) tesla (unit) ; 13) transferred (DNA) ; 14) thymus (lymphocyte) ; 15) temperature ; 16) thoracic vertebra ; 17) twisting number (T) ; 18) thymine ; 19) 5-methyluridine (t) ; 20) tumour (T, t) (Ag) ; 21) triangulation  number ; 22) tumour size

t1/2 : half-life (half-time)

T1D : type 1 diabetes

T2H : 2-carboxylic acid hydrazide

T3 : 3,5,3'-trisiodotironine

T4 : 3,5,3',5'-tetrakisiodotironine

t6a : N-((9-b-D-ribofuranosylpurine-6-yl)carbamoyl)threonine

T50H : Tm in eteroduplexes

TA : 1) transit amplifying (cell) ; 2) tonsils and adhenoids, tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T & A)

TAA : tumour-associated Ag

tab : tablet

TACI : transmembrane activator and CAML interactor

TACO : Trp, Asp-containing coat protein

TACTILE : T-cell activation increased late expression

TAD : trans(cription )activation domain

TAE : Tris-acetic acid-EDTA (buffer)

TAF : 1) TBP-associated factor ; 2) tumour-angiogenetic factor

TAG : 1) triacylglycerol ; 2) (SV40) T Ag (Tag)

TAI : transcript accumulation index

TAK : TGFb-activated kinase

Tal : Talin

TALL : 1) TNF- and ApoL-related leukocyte expressed ligand ; 2) T-cell ALL (T-ALL)

TAM : tamoxifen

TAMRA : 5-(and 6)-carboxytetramethylrhodamine

TANK : TRAF family member-associated NF-kB activator

TAP : 1) tumor-activated prodrug ; 2) transporter associated with antigene processing

TAPA : target for antiproliferative Ag

Taq : Thermus aquaticus

TAR : transactivating responsive

TARA : tumour-associated rejection Ag

TARC : thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine

TAS : total analysis system (chip)

TAT : tetanus antitoxin

TATS : transversal-assial tubular system

TBA : tetrabutylammonium chloride

TBARS : thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances

TB : 1) (Heath's aluminum-) touluidin blue ; 2) tuberculosis

TBC : 1) tuberculosis ; 2) Tre-2, BUB2p, and Cdc16p (domain)

TBE : 1) Tris, boric acid, EDTA (electrophoresis buffer) ; 2) tick borne encephalitis

TBE-IG : tickborne encephalitis Ig

TBEV : tick borne encephalitis viruses

TBG : thyroxine-binding globulin

TBI : total body irradiation

tBid : truncated Bid

TBII : thyrotropin binding inhibiting immunoglobulin

TBL : tuberal lesion

TBP : 1) TATA-box-binding protein ; 2) thioredoxin binding protein

TBPA : thyroxine binding prealbumin

TBRF : tick-borne relapsing fever

TBS : Tris-buffered saline

TBSA : total body surface area

tbsp : tablespoon

TBST : TBS with Tween 20

TBSV : tomato bushy stunt virus

TC : 1) tissue culture ; 2) treatment completed ; 3) transcobalamine ; 4) tetracycline

TCA : 1) tricarboxylic acid (cycle) ; 2) trichloroacetic acid ; 3) T-cell activation (chemokine)

TCC : T cell clones

TCD : T cell depleted

TCDBM : T cell-depleted bone marrow

TCDD : 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin

TCF : 1) T-cell factor ; 2) ternary complex factor

TCID50 : tissue culture ID50

TCL : T-cell leukaemia

TCM : T cell medium

TCNER : transcription-coupled NER

TCP : 1) T-complex polypeptide ; 2) toxin co-regulated pilus ; 3) transcutaneous pacing

TCR : 1) T-cell receptor (TcR/TCR/Tcr) ; 2) transcription-coupled repair

TCS : Treacher-Collins syndrome

TCT : thrombin clotting time

TCZ : T cell zone

TD : 1) thymus-dependent (Ag) ; 2) terminally differentiated (cell) ; 3) thymic dysfunction

TDA : target detection assay

TDI : toluene diisocyanate

TDIC : total dissolved inorganic carbon

TDLN : tumor-draining lymph node

TdR : thymidine deoxyribose

TDS : time domain spectroscopy

TDSNV : Trager duck spleen necrosis virus

TDT : 1) terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) ; 2) transmission disequilibrium test

TE : 1) Tris-EDTA (buffer) ; 2) transposable element ; 3) Toxoplasma encephalitis

TEA : 1) tracheo-esophageal airway ; 2) tetraethylammonium

TEACL : TEA chloride

TEC : 1) tubular epithelial cell ; 2) thymic epithelial cell

TECK : thymus-expressed chemokine

TED : thyroid eye disease

TEF : thermic effect of food

TEL : telomere

TEM : 1) triethylenemelamine ; 2) transmission electron microscopy ; 3) transendothealial migration

TEMED : N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethelenediamine

TEPA : triethylenephosphoramide

TEPP : tetraethyl pyrophosphate

TER : 1) transepithelial electric resistance ; 2) telomere (tel)

tera : 1012

TERT : telomerase reverse transcriptase

TES : N-tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid

tet : tetracycline

TETA : triethylenetetramine

TEW : time expanded waveform

TexCAPS : Texas coronary atherosclerosis prevention study

TF : 1) transcription factor ; 2) tissue factor ; 3) transferrin (Tf) ; 4) theaflavin ; 5) thymosin fraction

TFA : trifluoroacetate

TFAM : TF A in mitochondria

TFH : follicular Th cell (TFH)

TFM : theaflavin monogallate

TFO : triplex-forming oligonucleotide

TFPI : tissue-factor-pathway inhibitor

TG : 1) thioguanine ; 2) transgenic (Tg / tg) ; 3) thyroglobulin

TGF : transforming growth factor

TGGE : thermal (temperature) gradient gel electrophoresis

TGL : triacylglycerol lipase

TGMNV : tomato gold-mosaic virus

TGN : 1) trans-Golgi network ; 2) thioguanine nucleoside

TGS : transcriptional gene silencing

TH : 1) Tyr hydroxylase ; 2) thalamus

THANK : TNF homologue that activates apoptosis, NF-kB, and JNK

THC : 1) tetrahydrocannabinoltentative human consensus

Thd : thymidine

THE : transposable human element

THF : 1) thymic humoral factor ; 2) tetrahydrofolate ; 3) tetrahydrofuran

THFA : tetrahydrofolic acid

THM : trihalomethane

Thr : threonine

THY : 1) thymine (Thy) ; 2) thymosin (domain) ; 3) thymocyte (thy) ; 4) Todd Hewitt yeast (broth)

TI : 1) thymus-independent ; 2) tumour-inducing (plasmid) (Ti)

TIA : transient ischemic attack

TIBC : total iron binding capacity

TID : ter in die (i.e. : three times a day) (t.i.d.)

TIF : transcriptional mediator/intermediary factor

TIGR : the institute for genome research

TIL : tumour-infiltrating lymphocyte

TIL-B : tumor-infiltrating B cell

TIM : 1) triose phosphate isomerase ; 2) timeless (tim)

TIMP : tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (domain)

TIP : (HIV) Tat interactive protein

TIR : 1) Toll and mIL-1R (domain) ; 2) terminal inverted repeat

TIRAP : TIR-domain-containig adapter protein

TJ : tight junction

TJC : tender joint count

TK : thymidine kinase

TL : 1) TNF-like ; 2) thymus leukaemia ; 3) transfer factor of the lung

TLAD : time-location-activity diary

TLC : 1) total lung capacity ; 2) thin-layer chromatography

TLD : thermoluminescent dosimeter

TLESR : transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (tLESR)

TLF : TBP-like factor

TLI : total lymphoid irradiation

TLR : Toll-like receptor

TLS : translesion synthesis

TLV : threshold limit value

TM : 1) trans membrane (segment or protein) ; 2) melting temperature (Tm) ; 3) thrombomodulin ; 4) 2'-O-methyl-5-methyluridine ; 5) trade mark (TM) ; 6) tropomyosin

TMA : trimethylamine

TMAEM : trimethylammonio ethyl methacrylate

TMAO : trimethylamine oxide (TMA-O)

TMB : 3,3',5,5'-tetramethyl benzidine dichloride

TMC : typical medullary carcinoma

TME : transmissible mink encephalopathy

TMEV : Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus

TMP : 1) trimethoprim ; 2) taste-modifying protein

TMS : tetramethylsilane

TMV : tobacco mosaic virus

TN : 1) troponin (Tn) ; 2) transposon (Tn) ; 3) tenascin

TNA : threonucleic acid

TNBS : 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid

TNF : tumor necrosis factor

TNI : total nodal irradiation

TNP : trinitrophenyl

TO : transoral(ly) (t.o.)

TOCP : triorthocresylphosphate

TOE : theories of everything

TOEFL : test of English as a foreign language

TOF-MS : time-of-flight mass spectroscopy

TOP : terminal oligopyrimidine-rich (tract)

Top(o) : topoisomerase

TP : 1) TxA2 receptor ; 2) terminal protein

TPA : 1) 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate ; 2) tissue plasminogen activator (t(-)PA)

TPBS : Tris-phosphate buffered saline

TPCK : N-tosyl-L-Phe-chloromethyl ketone

TPHA : Treponema pallidum haemagglutination

TPI : Treponema pallidum immobilization

TPLSM : two-photon laser-scanning microscopy

TPMT : thiopurine methyltransferase

TPN : triphosphopyridine nucleotide

TPNA : tricyclic purine nucleoside analogue

TPO : 1) thyroid peroxidase (TPo) ; 2) thymopoietin (Tpo) ; 3) thrombopoietin

TPP : thiamine pyrophosphate

TPR : 1) translocated promoter region (Tpr) ; 2) temperature, pulse, respiration ; 3) tetratricopeptide repeat ; 4) total peripheral resistance

TR : 1) thyroid hormone receptor ; 2) TNF receptor related ; 3) thearubigin ; 4) taste receptor ; 5) terminal repeat

TRADD : TNFRI-associated DD

TRAF : TNF receptor-associated factor

TRAIL : TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand

TRALI : transfusion-related acute lung injury

TRAMP : TNFR-related apoptosis-mediating protein

TRANCE : TNF-related activation-induced cytokine

TRAP : 1) TNF-related activation protein ; 2) thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein ; 3) thrombospondin-related adhesive protein ; 4) telomerase repeat amplification protocol ; 5) tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase ; 6) transformation/transcription domain-associated protein

TRC : taste-receptor cell

TRE : 1) TPA RE ; 2) T3 RE

TREC : TcR excision circle

TRF : 1) TSH reeleasing factor ; 2) terminal restriction fragment

tr-FRET : time-resolved FRET

TRH : TSH releasing hormone

TRICK : TRAIL receptor inducer of cell killing

TRID : TRAIL receptor without an intracellular domain

TRIF : TIR-domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-b

TRIP : TRAF interacting protein

TRIPS : trade-related intellectual property rights

Tris (base) : tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (buffer)

TRITC : tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate

TRK : tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk)

TRL : terminal repeat long

TRMA : thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia

TRP : transient receptor potential

TRPL : TRP-like

TRS : 1) terminal resolution site ; 2) terminal repeat short

TRT : total reaction time

TRUNDD : TRAIL receptor with a tDD

Trx : thioredoxin

TS : 1) temperature-sensitive (ts) ; 2) tumour suppressor ; 3) thymidylate synth(et)ase

TSA : 1) transition state analogous ; 2) tumour-specific Ag ; 3) trichostatin A ; 4) trypomastigote surface Ag ; 5) tryptic soy agar

TSAb : thyroid-stimulating Ab

TSC : tuberous sclerosis

TSE : transmissible spongiform encephalopathy

TSH : thyroid-stimulating hormone

TSHR : TSH receptor

TSI : triple sugar iron (medium)

TSLP : thymic stromal lymphopoietin

TSLS : toxic shock-like syndrome

TSP : 1) tumor specific protein ; 2) teaspoon ; 3) thrombospondin (repeat or domain) ; 4) tail specific protease (domain)

TSS : 1) toxic shock syndrome ; 2) transcription start site ; 3) technical services staff

TSST : toxic shock syndrome toxin

TSTA : tumour specific transplantation Ag

TT : 1) differential transmissivity (T/T) ; 2) thrombin time

TT4 : total T4

TTD : trichothiodistrophy

TTF : time to treatment failure

TTG : tissue transglutaminase (tTG)

TTI : tritiated thymidine incorporation (TTi)

Ttk : tramtrack

TTP : thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; time to progression

TTQ : Trp tryptopylquinone

TTR : transthyretin

TTV : TT (initials of the Japanese patient in which was first detected) virus

TTX : tetrodotoxin

TTX-R : TTX-resistant

TUNEL : TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end-labeling

TUR : trans-urethral resecation

TV : tidal volume

TVB-N : total volatile basic nitrogen

TWEAK : (a secreted ligand in the) T(NF family that) weak(ly induces apoptosis)

TX : 1) thromboxane (Tx) ; 2) toxin

TY : thyroglobulin (repeat)

Tyr : tyrosine

Tyk : ty(rosine) k(inase)

TZD : thiazolidinedione

- U -

# ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRST U VWXYZ

U : 1) uracil ; 2) Sec ; 3) sometimes wrong typographical abbreviation for m ; 4) uracil-rich protein ; 5) unit (U/u) ; 6) m (u) ; 7) upstream (u)

U2AF : U2 snRNP auxiliary factor

UAS : upstream activating sequence

Ub : ubiquitin

UBC : Ub-carrier (enzyme)

UBF : upstream binding factor

UBL : Ub-like (protein)

UC : ulcerative colitis

UCE : Ub-conjugating enzyme

UCH : Ub carboxy-terminal hydrolase

UCHD : usual childhood disease

UCLA : university of California, Los Angeles

UCP : uncoupling protein

UCR : 1) upstream coinserved region ; 2) ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase

UCRP : Ub cross-reactive protein

UCS : union of concerned scientists

UCSF : university of California, San Francisco

UCTD : undetermined connective tissue disease

UCVA : uncorrected visual acuity

UDG : uracil-DNA glycosylase

UDP : 1) Ub-domain protein ; 2) uridine diphosphate

UDPG : UDP-glucose

UdR : uridine deoxyribose

uE3 : unconjugated E3

UEC : unequal crossing-over

UESCE : unequal SCE

UFH : unwanted facial hair

UFO : unidentified flying object

UFSH : uroFSH (uFSH)

UGA : under general anaesthesia

UGT : UDP-glucoronosyltransferase

UHF : ultrahigh frequency

UL : 1) (tolerable) upper (intake) level ; 2) unique long (region)

ULBP : UL-16-binding protein

ULP : Ub-like protein-processing enzyme

um : 2'-O-methyluridine

umami : umai (i.e. : delicious)

UMIST : University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology

UMP : uridine monophosphate

UN : united nations (organization)

UNESCO : UN educational, scientific and cultural organization

ung : unguentum (i.e. : ointment)

unk : unknown

UPA : urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA ; u-PA)

UPD : uniparental disomy

UPE : urine protein electrophoresis

UPEP : urine protein electrophoresis

UPF : up-frameshift suppressor protein

UPGMA : unweighted pair group method using arithmetic-average

UPP : urethral pressure profile

UPR : unfolded protein response

UR : ubiquitous receptor

UR2SV : UR2 sarcoma virus

URA : unjustified recurrent abortion

URF : unassigned reading frame

URI : upper respiratory tract infection

URL : uniform resource locator

URT : upper respiratory tract

US : 1) United States (of America) ; 2) unique short (region)

USA : US of America

USAID : US agency for international development

USAMIIRD : US army medical research institute for infectious disease

USAN : US asopted name

USDA : United States Department of Agriculture

USF : upstream stimulatory factor

USP : US pharmacopeia

USPDI : USP dispensing information

UTA : unconventional transmissible agent

ut dict. : ut dictatum (i.e. : as directed)

UTI : urinary tract infection

UTP : uridine triphosphate

UTR : untranslated region

UTS : untranslated sequence

UV : ultraviolet

UVDE : UV-damage endonuclease

UVR : UV radiation

- V -

# ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTU V WXYZ

V : 1) viral (v) ; 2) vesicle (v) ; 3) volt (unit) ; 4) velocity (v/V) ; 5) Val ; 6) vascular ; 7) variable (region) ; 8) vertical limb of ; 9) vacuolar (H+ ATPase) ; 10) follows U in the alphabet (i.e. : A or C or G in base codes)

VA : vanillic acid

VA-CH3-TFA : vanillic acid methyl ester trifluoroacetate

VAHIT : veterans affairs HDL intervention trial

Val : valine

VAlc-TFA : vanillylalcohol trifluoroacetate

VAMP : vesicle-associated membrane protein

Van-TFA : vanillin trifluoroacetate

VAP : vascular adhesion protein

VAS : visual analogue scale

VATS : video-assisted thoracic surgery

VB : veronal buffer

VBS : veronal buffered saline

VC : vital capacity

VCA : viral capsid Ag

VCAM : vascular CAM

VCD : vibrational CD

vCJD : new-variant CJD

VCP : vaccinia-virus complement-control protein

VCSA : viral cell surface Ag

VD : 1) viroid (Vd) ; 2) venereal disease ; 3) vessel density

VDAC : voltage-dependent anion channel

VDH : valvular disease of the heart

VDR : vitamin D receptor

VDRE : vitamin D responsive element

VDRL : venereal disease research laboratories

VDT : video display terminal

VDU : visual display unit

VE : Viliuisk encephalomyelitis

VEA : viral envelope Ag

VEE : Venezuelan equine encephalitis (virus)

VEGF : vascular endothelial GF

VEID : Val-Glu-Ile-Asp

VEJAM : vascular endothelial junction-associated molecule

VF : ventricular fibrillation

Vh : volts x hour

VHEV : Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus

VHF : viral haemorragic fever

VHL : von Hippel-Lindau (syndrome)

VHP : villin headpiece

VHS : VPS-27, Hrs and STAM (domain)

VHSV : viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus

VIC : vasoactive intestinal contractor

Vid : vacuolar import and degradation

VIGS : virus-induced gene silencing

VIP : vasoactive intestinal peptide

vis : visible (to the human eye)

VISA : vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus

VISI : vaccine identification standards initiative

VIT : vitamin

viz : videlicet (i.e. : that is, namely)

VLA : 1) very late antigen ; 2) very large array

VLCFA : very long chain (i.e. >18) fatty acid

VLDL : very low-density lipoprotein

VLP : virus-like particle

VLS : vascular leak syndrome

VLSI : very large-scale integration

VMA : vanillylmandelic acid

Vmax : maximal (maximum) velocity

VMN : ventromedial nucleus

VMP : variable major protein

VN : 1) virus neutralization ; 2) vitronectin

VNDR : variable number of dinucleotide repeats

VNO : vomeronasal organ

VNR : vitronectin receptor

VNTR : variable number of tander repeats

vol(.) : volume

VP : 1) 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone ; 2) viral protein ; 3) vacuum packaging

VPC : vector-producing cell

VR : 1) virtual reality ; 2) vestitone reductase ; 3) vanilloid receptor ; 4) vomeronasal receptor

VRE : vancomycin-resistant Enterococci

VRL : VR-like

VRSA : vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

VRV : viper retrovirus

VS : 1) versus (i.e. : against) (vs(.)) ; 2) vide supra (i.e. : see above) (v.s.)

VSA : variant surface antigen

VSG : variable surface glycoprotein

VSMC : vascular smooth muscle cell

VSN : vomeronasal sensory neuron

VSV : vesicular stomatitis virus

VT : ventricular tachycardia

VTA : ventral tegmental area

VTLB : videothoracoscopic lung biopsy

VTMoV : velvet tobacco mottle virusoid

VV : volume/volume ratio (v/v ; 2) variola virus

vWD : von Willebrand disease

vWF : von Willebrand factor

VWM : vanishing white matter

VZ : ventricular (germinal) zone

VZV : varicella-zoster virus

- W -

# ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUV W XYZ

W : 1) Trp ; 2) bird sexual chromosome ; 3) watt(s) ; 4) whriting number (W) ; 5) double covalent bond position in a FFA starting from methyl group (w) ; 6) angular speed (w) ; 7) weak interaction (i.e. : A or T in base codes)

WAGR : WT + aniris + genitourinary malformations + mental retardation (syndrome)

WAP : wireless application protocol

WAS : Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome

WASp : Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein

WBC : white blood cell

WBCC : whole blood cell culture

WBI : whole body irradiation

WBS : Williams-Beuren syndrome

WD : 1) well-developed (w-d) ; 2) ward (Wd)

WDM : warm dense matter

WEE : Western equine encephalitis

WEEV : WEE virus

WF : white female

Wg : wingless

WGA : wheat germ agglutinin

WGD : whole genome duplication

WGRH : whole-genome radiation hybrids

WH : 1) white (wh) ; 2) WASP homology region

WHAM : weighted histogram analysis method

Whn : Winged-helix nude

WHO : world health organization

WHR : waist-hip ratio

WIP : WASp-interacting protein

WISK : wortmannin-sensitive and insulin-stimulated PFK-2 kinase

wk : week

WL : wavelenght

WM : white male

WMD : weapons of mass destruction

WMSV : wooly monkey sarcoma virus

WN : 1) well-nourished (w-n) ; 2) West-Nile

WND : wound  (wnd)

WNL : within normal limits

WNLV : West Nile-like virus

Wnt : W(ingless) and (I)nt

WOSCOPS : West of Scotland coronary prevention study

WP : white pulp

WPGMA : weighted pair group method using arithmetic average

WPW : Wolff-Parkinson-White (syndrome)

WR : worm-specific repeat

WRI : Wriggle mouse sagami

WRN : Werner

WRS : Wolcott-Rallison syndrome

WS : Werner syndrome

WT : 1) Wilms’ tumor suppressor gene/protein ; 2) wild-type ; 3) weight (wt(.))

WTO : world trade organization

w/v : weight/volume ratio

WW : 1) Trp-Trp (domain) ; 2) weight/weight ratio (w/w)

www : world wide web

- X -

# A B CDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVW X YZ

X : 1) Xaa ; 2) mammalian sexual chromosome ; 3) Xenopus laevis homologous (x) ; 4) times (x) ; 5) 3-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)uridine (x)

Xaa : unknown or "other" aminoacid

Xce : X control element

X(-)gal : 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-b-D-galactopiranoside

XGPRT : xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase

XIAP : X-linked IAP

XIC : X inactivation center  (XIC/Xic)

XLA : X-linked agammaglobulinemia

XLCM : X-linked cardiomyopathy

XLP : X-linked lymphoproliferative (syndrome)

XME : xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme

XMP : xanthosine 5'-monophosphate

XP : xeroderma pigmentosum

XRCC : X-ray repair cross-complementing (group)

XTAL : crystallin (domain)

Xu : xylulose

Xyl : xylose

- Y -

# ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWX Y Z

Y : 1) Tyr ; 2) mammalian sexual chromosome ; 3) dihedral angle of rotation around the C-aC bond in a peptide unit (y) ; 4) pyrimidine ; 5) pseudouridine (y) ; 6) specificity (y)

Y73SV : Y73 sarcoma virus

YAC : yeast artificial chromosome

YADH : yeast alcohol dehydrogenase

yacto : 10-24

YAG : yttrium, aluminum, and garnet (laser)

YAP : Yes-associated protein

yd : yard

YF : yellow fever

YFP : yellow fluorescent gprotein

YFV : yellow fever virus

YOB : year of birth

yotta : 1024

YPD : 1) yeast extract/peptone/dextrose ; 2) yeast protein database

yr : year

YSZ : Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2

YTF : youth travel fund (grant)

yw : wybutosine

- Z -

# ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXY Z

Z : 1) LOD score ; 2) Glx ; 3) bird sexual chromosome ; 4) zusammen (Z) ; 5) valence (z) ; 6) unknown quantity (z)

ZAP : z -associated protein

ZDV : zidovudine

zen : zerknullt

zepto : 10-21

zetta : 1021

ZF : Zn finger  (domain)

ZIG : zoster Ig

ZIP : 1) Leu zipper ; 2) zipper-interacting (serine/threonine) protein (kinase) ; 3) (PKC)z-interacting protein

ZnF : Zn finger (domain) (ZnF, Znf)

ZO : zonula occludens

ZP : zona pellucida (domain)

ZPA : zone of polarizing activity

ZPS : zwitterionic polysaccharide

ZU : ZO-1 and Unc5-like netrin receptors (domain)

zVAD : benzoxy-Val-Ala-Asp

zw : zeste-white


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