: treatment of mental disorders and behavioral disturbances using verbal
and nonverbal communication, including such psychological techniques as
support, suggestion, persuasion, reeducation, reassurance, and insight,
in order to alter maladaptive patterns of coping, relieve emotional disturbance,
and encourage personality growth. It is usually contrasted with therapies
involving physical interventions, such as drug or convulsive therapies
psychology : that branch of science which
deals with the mind and mental processes, especially in relation to human
and animal behavior.
abnormal psychology : the study of mental disorders and behavior
analytic or analytical psychology : the system of psychology founded
by Carl Gustav Jung, based on the concepts of the collective unconscious
and the complex.
animal psychology : the study of the mental activity of animals.
child psychology : the study of the development of the mind of the
clinical psychology : the use of psychologic knowledge and techniques
in the treatment of persons with mental, emotional, behavior, and developmental
cognitive psychology : that branch of psychology which deals with
how the human mind receives and interprets impressions and ideas.
community psychology : the application of psychological principles
to the study and support of the mental health of individuals in their social
comparative psychology : the study of behavior using a comparison
of species as a source of knowledge.
criminal psychology : the study of the mentality, the motivation,
and the social behavior of criminals.
depth psychology : the study of unconscious mental processes.
developmental psychology : the study of changes in behavior that
occur through the life span.
dynamic psychology : psychology that stresses the causes of and
motivations for behavior.
environmental psychology : study of the effects of the physical
and social environment on behavior.
experimental psychology : the study of mental operations and behaviors
by the employment of controlled laboratory procedures.
behavioristic psychology / behaviorism : a school of psychology
founded by John B. Watson that regards as the subject matter of psychology
only overt actions capable of direct observation and measurement and ignores
unobservable mental events such as ideas and emotions.
gestalt therapy : this psychotherapy aims to help the client achieve
wholeness (gestalt is the German word for "whole") by becoming fully aware
of his or her feelings, perceptions, and behavior. The emphasis is on the
"here and now" of immediate experience rather than on the past. Gestalt
therapy is often conducted in group settings, such as weekend workshops.
gestalt psychology / gestaltism / gestalt theory : that theory in
psychology which claims that the objects of mind, as immediately presented
to direct experience, come as complete, unanalyzable wholes or forms (Gestalten)
that cannot be split up into parts
individual psychology : Alfred Adler's psychological theory that
stresses the role of compensation for feelings of inferiority as the source
of psychological and interpersonal problems.
physiologic or physiological psychology : the branch of psychology
that studies the relationship between physiologic and psychologic processes.
social psychology : psychology that focuses on social interaction,
on the ways in which actions of others influence the behavior of an individual.
ego analysis : in a psychoanalytic treatment, the analysis of the
strengths and weaknesses of the ego, especially its defense mechanisms
against unacceptable unconscious impulses
transactional analysis : a type of psychotherapy based on an understanding
of the interactions (transactions) between patient and therapist and between
patient and others in the environment. It focuses primarily on ego states,
principally the Parent, Adult, and Child.
psychoanalysis / psychoanalytic psychotherapy
: a therapeutic technique based on Freud's theory, focusing on the influence
of such unconscious forces as repressed impulses, internal conflicts, and
childhood trauma on the mental state. The therapist elicits from patients
past emotional experiences and their role in influencing current mental
life, so as to delineate the conflicts and mechanisms by which their pathologic
mental state has been produced and furnish hints for psychotherapeutic
procedures; the method employs free association,
recall and interpretation of dreams, and interpretation of transference
and resistance phenomena.
transference : in psychotherapy, the unconscious tendency to assign
to others in one's present environment feelings and attitudes associated
with significant persons in one's early life, especially the patient's
transfer to the therapist of feelings and attitudes associated with a parent.
The feelings may be affectionate (positivetransference)
or hostile (negativetransference).
countertransference / counter transference : a transference reaction
of a psychoanalyst or other psychotherapist to a patient, i.e., an emotional
reaction that is generally a reflection of the analyst's own inner needs
and conflicts but also may be a reaction to the client's behavior
brief psychotherapy : any of numerous
forms of psychotherapy limited to a preagreed number of sessions, generally
10 to 20, or termination date; most types are active and directive, and
many are oriented toward a specific problem or symptom
brief dynamic psychotherapy
psychotherapy for stress-response syndromes (BPSRS)
existential psychotherapy : that based on the existential philosophy
of Kierkegaard, Heidegger, Jaspers, etc., in which the emphasis is on present
interactions and feeling experiences rather than on rational thinking.
interpersonal psychotherapy : a form of brief psychotherapy that
treats mood disorders by addressing interpersonal problems, emphasizing
that the mood disorder is a medical illness and focusing on healing current
relationships in a specific problem area in the here and now.
supportive psychotherapy : that aimed at reinforcing a patient's
defenses, relieving immediate crises or acute disequilibria, reducing symptoms
to a premorbid level, and promoting the healthy aspects of the patient,
without probing emotional conflicts or trying to alter the basic personality.
Specific methods include advice; guidance; reassurance; desensitization;
art, music, or dance therapy; and occupational therapy.
crystal healing or therapy / gem therapy
uses crystals, each selected for specific characteristics or wavelength,
to treat a wide range of mental and physical conditions. This approach
is based on the belief that the body has an energy field that can be influenced
by the placement of crystals on specific body points.
electrocrystal therapy was developed by the British inventor Harry
Oldfield in the 1980s. This technique involves the use of an electromagnetic
generator attached to conducting tubes filled with specific types of crystals.
These tubes are applied to the body, and energy is transmitted through
them. It is proposed that various types of crystals in these tubes have
different effects on the body. An electronic device may also be used that
is said to be able to detect areas of energy imbalance of the body. These
areas may then be treated with electrocrystal therapy.
Crystal therapy is proposed to assist with physical, emotional and spiritual
balance and healing. According to Tantric texts, there are a number of
points in the body from which our psychic forces flow. These are called
"chakra points." Different hypotheses exist on the actual number (7 is
the most common) and location of points. The term chakra comes from the
Sanskrit cakram, meaning wheel or circle. In crystal therapy, crystals
of appropriate color and energy may be placed at specific chakra points
on the body with the aim to energize and cleanse. Electrocrystal therapy
is proposed to work by rebalancing the energy field to promote better health.
The safety and effectiveness of these techniques have not been thoroughly
tested scientifically. There is no evidence for this technique. There are
not a sufficient number of reports available identifying the uses of crystal
therapy or electrocrystal therapy. Crystal therapy is generally believed
to be safe for most individuals. Electrocrystal therapy uses electromagnetic
fields and electrical equipment. Safety has not been thoroughly studied,
and therefore the risks are not clear. Because these techniques are not
well-researched, neither should be used as the sole treatment (in place
of more proven approaches) of a severe illness. Do not delay consultation
with an appropriate health care provider for a potentially serious symptom
or condition. Crystal therapy and electrocrystal therapy are used for a
wide variety of conditions. These techniques have not been thoroughly studied
scientifically. Safety and effectiveness are not known. Although crystal
therapy may be safe, it should not be relied on as the sole treatment for
potentially dangerous conditions. You should discuss crystal therapy or
electro-crystal therapy with your primary health care provider before starting.
musicotherapy / melotherapy / music
therapy : singing, playing instruments, or listening to music
pet therapy : humans may have had pet
cats as long as 9,500 years ago - long before the Egyptians deified their
feline companions. Archaeologists have found a kitten's grave 40 centimetres
from a human burial site in Cyprus, showing the animal's special status.
Feline figurines have been found from around the same time. Dogs became
fast friends with mankind long before that - companion burial sites date
from as long as 12,500 years ago.
behavior therapy or modification / conditioning therapy : a therapeutic
approach in which the focus is on the patient's observable behavior, rather
than on conflicts and unconscious processes presumed to underlie his maladaptive
behavior. This is accomplished through systematic manipulation of the environmental
and behavioral variables related to the specific behavior to be modified;
operant conditioning, systematic desensitization, token economy, aversive
control, flooding, and implosion are examples of techniques that may be
used in behavior therapy
aversion or aversive therapy : a form of behavior therapy using
conditioning, pairing undesirable behavior or symptoms with unpleasant
stimulation in order to reduce or eliminate the behavior or symptoms
shaping / successive approximation : an operant conditioning technique
used in behavior therapy in which new behavior is produced by providing
reinforcement for progressively closer approximations of the final desired
behavior analysis : Skinner's model for examination and prediction
of the behavior of individuals in the environment based on theories of
operant and respondent conditioning and social learning and depending on
cognitive behavior therapy : a directive form of psychotherapy based
on the theory that emotional problems result from distorted attitudes and
ways of thinking that can be corrected. Using techniques drawn in part
from behavior therapy, the therapist actively seeks to guide the patient
in altering or revising negative or erroneous perceptions and attitudes
token economy : a program of treatment in behavior therapy, usually
conducted in a hospital setting, in which the patient may earn tokens by
engaging in appropriate personal and social behavior, or lose tokens by
inappropriate or antisocial behavior; tokens may be exchanged for tangible
rewards (food snacks, clothing, etc.) or for special privileges (watching
television, passes to leave the hospital, etc.).
client-centered therapy : a form of psychotherapy in which the emphasis
is on the patient's self-discovery, interpretation, conflict resolution,
and reorganization of values and life approach, which are enabled by the
warm, nondirective, unconditionally accepting support of the therapist,
who reflects and clarifies the patient's discoveries
combined therapy : psychotherapy in which the patient sees the same
therapist for both individual and group therapies concurrently.
conjoint therapy : that in which a patient is involved in both group
and individual psychotherapy concurrently, seeing separate therapists for
group therapy or psychotherapy : a form
of psychotherapy in which a group of people meet regularly with a group
leader, usually a therapist. The group uses therapeutic forces within the
group, interactions between members, and the interventions of the trained
leader to achieve insight into the cause of problems, provide emotional
support, or effect changes in maladaptive behavior, thoughts, or feelings
of the individual members. Women generally have better outcomes in both
supportive and interpretive short-term group therapy relative to men, while
men are less committed to their therapy groups and are perceived by other
group members to be less compatible than women.
family therapy : group therapy of the
members of a family, exploring and improving family relationships and processes,
understanding and modifying home influences that contribute to mental disorder
in one or more family members, and improving communication and collective,
constructive methods of problem solving
marital or couples therapy : a type
of family therapy aimed at understanding and treating one or both members
of a couple in the context of a distressed relationship, but not necessarily
addressing the discordant relationship itself. Courting couples tend to
ignore negative statements and pay more attention to positive remarks.
Once married, this trend often reverses, although couples that remain together
into their sixties retain this outlook.
marriage therapym : a subset of marital therapy that focuses specifically
on the bond of marriage between 2 people, enhancing and preserving it.
emotionally focused therapy : a form of marital therapy in which
the couple increases intimacy and improves their relationship by each assessing,
acknowledging, and expressing their underlying emotions and unmet feelings
behavioral marital therapy
(BMT) : a form of marital therapy using principles and techniques from
behavior therapy; it attempts to alleviate marital distress by increasing
positive, pleasant interactions between the members of a couple
psychodrama : a form of group psychotherapy
in which patients dramatize their own or assigned life situations in order
to achieve insight into personalities, relationships, conflicts, and emotional
problems, and to alter faulty behavior patterns.
group analysis : group therapy in which
interpretation is given to the patients and insight is evoked on the basis
of the communication and interactions occurring within the group
psychotherapy : this form of group psychotherapy aims to help clients
resolve past emotional trauma that may underlie current life problems.
Practitioners support clients in directing toward the practitioners themselves
feelings that were originally directed toward significant figures from
childhood, and in working through those feelings. Techniques may include
regression, role playing, psychodrama, contracting for behavioral change,
and bodywork or movement.
milieu therapy : treatment, usually in a psychiatric hospital, that
emphasizes the provision of an environment and activities appropriate to
the patient's emotional and interpersonal needs.
Morita therapy : a school of psychotherapy originating in Japan,
based on the essential elements of conduct in Zen Buddhism. It emphasizes
the combating of egocentricity and the correction of alienation from nature.
play therapy : a method of psychotherapy used in treating children,
in which play is used to a considerable extent as the means of communication
between the child and therapist, enabling self-expression and the revealing
of unconscious material
primal therapy : psychotherapy in which the patient is encouraged
to relive his early traumatic experiences and so relieve the painful emotions
with which they are associated
inner child : in this form of psychotherapy, clients imagine their
return to childhood experiences (traumatic or otherwise), with the goal
of healing and resolving present psychological problems that may issue
from the past.
paradoxical intention : the hypothesis that struggling against one's
mental symptoms only exacerbates them whereas invoking them deliberately
may do the opposite; used as a form of psychotherapy in which the behavior
or feelings to be avoided are commanded to be performed or felt.
association : in psychiatry, a connection between ideas or feelings,
especially between conscious thoughts and elements of the unconscious,
or the formation of such a connection
dream associations : emotions or thoughts associated with previous
dreams, as developed by the patient in psychoanalysis
free association : a psychoanalytical
method in which the patient is encouraged to describe the association of
thoughts and emotions as they arise spontaneously during the analysis.
suggestion therapy : a form of
psychotherapy characterized by suggestion, reassurance, and sometimes also
hypnology : the scientific study of sleep or hypnosis
: a state of altered consciousness, usually artificially induced, characterized
by focusing of attention, heightened responsiveness to suggestions and
commands, suspension of disbelief with lowering of critical judgment, the
potential of alteration in perceptions, motor control, or memory in response
to suggestions, and the subjective experience of responding involuntarily.
Humans like to comply; they don't like to be embarrassed : but underneath
the coercion used by charismatic stage acts, a physiological effect is
occurring. Those who are easily hypnotized during both the stage and therapeutic
varieties show different activity in a brain region called the anterior
cingulate gyrus if MRI scanned while they tackled a problem called the
task (from John
Ridley Stroop), a test of mental flexibility that requires subjects
to categorize a list of colours presented in a different colour - the word
'green' printed in blue, say - depending either on the name or the actual
colour. In a hypnotic trance, the function of this region may be impaired,
he says, meaning that subjects are more likely to follow a hypnotist's
suggestion. This is consistent with the idea that those who are easiest
to hypnotize tend to describe themselves as generally letting go of their
inhibitions quite easily. A region in the brain's medio-frontal cortex,
close to the anterior cingulate, governs our perception of how we will
feel if we take a certain course of action
hypnotherapy : the use of hypnosis in
the treatment of disease
hypnodontics : the application of controlled suggestion and hypnosis
in the practice of dentistry.
hypnoanesthesia : induction of the anesthetic state by hypnosis
hypnoanalysis : a method of psychotherapy in which psychoanalysis
is employed in conjunction with hypnosis
Mesmer Franz (Friedrich) Anton. German physician in France and Switzerland
(1734–1815); his theory of animal magnetism was a precursor of modern hypnotism
and suggestion therapy
animal magnetism : a hypothetical force or power alleged by Mesmer
to be transmitted to his subjects undergoing therapeutic hypnosis
mesmerism : the use of animal magnetism and hypnotism as practiced
Therapists who swear that hypnosis can help their patients now have more
evidence to back their claim. A study of brain-scan images shows that hypnosis
can indeed alter cognitive activity after subjects have come out of the
trance state, and that this can help them concentrate on certain tasks.
Hypnotized subjects outperformed their peers at a classic test of mental
focus. And scans pinpointed the area of the brain responsible for this
lasting effect. Hypnotists can strongly influence the behaviour of their
subjects, sometimes helping them to give up addictive substances or, in
tricks performed during stage performances, bark like a dog on hearing
Elvis Presley. The findings indicate a biological basis for these types
of behaviour. Words can form suggestions, and suggestions can have very,
very strong effects on neurological activity. To study this effect, Raz
used 16 volunteers, 8 of whom were easily hypnotizable. These people would
later be asked to tackle a mental challenge called the Stroop test,
in which readers must name the colour in which a word is written. This
is particularly tricky when the word is itself the name of a different
colour. Participants should say 'blue', for example, when the word 'red'
appears in blue ink. In the hypnosis sessions, which lasted on average
25 minutes, the volunteers were told that when they later heard a cue,
such as a coughing sound, they would see the printed words as gibberish
and only be able to focus on the ink. Researchers then brought them out
of their trance state, and 10 minutes later asked them to take the Stroop
test while in a brain scanner. The subjects who were suggestible to hypnosis
completed the Stroop task 10% faster than their counterparts after this
cue. Their brain scans showed that their anterior cingulate cortex, a region
of the brain involved in planning and conflict resolution, had less activity
compared with the non-hypnotized subjects. Their anterior cingulate cortices
were very quiet. This conflict-resolution centre struggles to reconcile
various sensory and intellectual inputs. Like when you see a cheesecake
on the table and want to eat it, but remember that you can't because your
doctor told you that your cholesterol is high. The images help to prove
that post-hypnotic suggestions have a real biological effect. This was
not social compliance, this was actually happening at the brain level.
It is unclear from this study whether hypnotic suggestion could help people
with other tasks that require a different type of concentration. Science
is finally catching up with what we have known but lacked the technology
to prove. Hypnosis might not be strictly necessary to implant instructions
in the minds of very susceptible people. Perhaps making repeated suggestions
to them even when they're not hypnotized might have the same effects on
Web resources :
biofeedback : the process of furnishing
an individual information, usually in an auditory or visual mode, on the
state of one or more physiological variables such as heart rate, blood
pressure, or skin temperature; such a procedure often enables the individual
to gain some voluntary control over the physiologic variable being sampled.
A technique used especially for stress-related conditions such as asthma,
migraines, insomnia, and high blood pressure, biofeedback is a way of monitoring
minute metabolic changes in one's own body (e.g., temperature changes,
heart rate, and muscle tension) with the aid of sensitive machines. By
consciously visualizing, relaxing, or imagining while observing light,
sound, or metered feedback, the client learns to make subtle adjustments
to move toward a more balanced internal state.
alpha biofeedback or feedback : a procedure in which a person is
presented with continuous information, usually auditory, on the state of
his brain-wave pattern, with the intent of increasing the percentage of
this is done with the expectation that it will be associated with a state
of relaxation and peaceful wakefulness
electromyographic biofeedback : a method of muscle retraining for
patients with neurological deficits; electrical activity of the muscle
is recorded by electromyography
and displayed on a video screen in front of the patient, accompanied by
a variable audible signal, in order to monitor muscle movements.