Review of the Odontesthes perugiae species group from Río de La Plata drainage, with the description of a new species (Atherinomorpha: Atherinopsidae)

JULIANA M. WINGERTresearchgate logo , JULIANO FERRERresearchgate logo, LUIZ R. MALABARBA researchgate logo

Specimens presently identified as belonging to Odontesthes perugiae species group from rio Paraná, rio Uruguay and rio Negro in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay are revised. Two species are recognized: Odontesthes perugiae, type species of the genus with Odontesthes orientalis as a junior synonym, and a new species described herein. Odontesthes perugiae is redescribed and its distribution restricted to the lower rio Paraná, lower rio Uruguay and rio Negro basins. The new species is endemic from the upper rio Uruguay above Salto do Yucumã (Brazil) or Saltos del Moconá (Argentina) falls. Both species share with the remaining taxa included in the O. perugiae species-group (O. bicudo, O. ledae, O. mirinensis, and O. piquava) the possession of teeth of the outer row on dentary and premaxilla shorter than those in the inner row, being distinguished from them by the number of gill rakers, body measurements and some osteological characters.

Artigo completo:

FIGURE 17. Odontesthes yucuman, nontype, UFRGS 19389, 168.7 mm SL, just after fixation, rio Uruguay at reservoir of the Itá Hydroelectric Power Plant, Itá, Santa Catarina State, Brazil (Photo by Renata Guereschi).

FIGURE 18. Detail of teeth on dentary and premaxilla from medial view of Odontesthes yucuman, paratype, UFRGS 17840, 114.2 mm SL, indicating the small teeth of the outer row and the large teeth of the inner row. Scale bar = 1 mm.


FIGURE 5. Lateral views of head of Odontesthes perugiae (a), MCP 43030, 148.5 mm SL, and O. yucuman (b), paratype, UFRGS 11671, 156.6 mm SL, showing the differences in head shape and size of snout and eye.


Using ancient DNA to unravel taxonomic puzzles: the identity of Deuterodon pedri (Ostariophysi: Characidae)

Priscilla C. Silvaresearchgate logoMaria C. Malabarbaresearchgate logoLuiz R. Malabarbaresearchgate logo

Accurate identification is essential for any study exploring biodiversity. Unfortunately, museum type specimens preserved for more than a hundred years are often not informative enough for precise identification of the species represented by the name-bearing type. The use of ancient DNA can help solve taxonomic problems when name-bearing types no longer have diagnostic morphological features that allow for an accurate identification of the species involved. That is the case for Deuterodon pedri, an endemic species from a small drainage in the rio Doce basin in Minas Gerais, Brazil, for which the type material is in poor condition. Specimens of D. pedri were collected in 1865 by the Thayer Expedition to Brazil and fixed in spirits, enabling them to yield viable DNA. As the morphology alone of the type material does not allow for an accurate identification, we used both morphological and ancient DNA (aDNA) methods to decisively establish the identity of D. pedri. This identification allowed us to recognize the species among recently collected specimens and then, based on them, redescribe the species. A genetype for the lectotype of D. pedri is presented.


Fig. 3 Two paralectotypes of Deuterodon pedri, MCZ 17510. a-c. Photograph and X-ray computed tomography of the paralectotype with 72.1 mm SL, showing the dentary teeth decreasing gradually in size, corresponding to D. pedri. b-d. Photograph and X-ray computed tomography of the paralectotype with 58.6 mm SL, showing the dentary teeth decreasing abruptly, corresponding to Astyanax intermedius

Fig. 2 Neighbor Joining tree and Haplotype network showing high similarity between specimens collected at rio Santo Antônio basin and sequence of the lectotype of Deuterodon pedri. a. Neighbor joining tree with bootstrap values. b. Haplotype network of D. pedri clade. Numbers in each branch of the net refer to number of mutational steps between haplotypes. 

Ontogenetic changes in mouth morphology triggers conflicting hypotheses of relationships in characid fishes (Ostariophysi: Characiformes)

Hirschmann Aliceresearchgate logo; Fagundes Nelson J. R.; Malabarba, Luiz Rresearchgate logo.

Bryconamericus lethostigmus is the type-species of the monotypic genus Odontostoechus, diagnosed in part based on the presence of a unique tooth series in the premaxilla. Recently a new proposal of classification of the Stevardiinae placed Odontostoechus as a junior synonym of a monophyletic genus Bryconamericus sensu stricto, a genus characterized by the presence of two tooth series. Bryconamericus lethostigmus is redescribed herein and the single tooth series in the premaxilla is demonstrated to originate from merging of the external tooth row with the inner row during ontogeny refuting primary hypothesis of homology between the mouth morphology of B. lethostigmus and the genera Bryconacidnus, Ceratobranchia, Monotocheirodon, Othonocheirodus, Rhinopetitia and Rhinobrycon. A phylogeographic analysis indicated that the pattern described for the sympatric species Diapoma itaimbe is not mirrored by B. lethostigmus. The results also do not support the hypothesis of a new species in the rio Araranguá drainage.


Fig. 2 Bryconamericus lethostigmus. a. holotype, 48.68 mm SL (UMMZ 143272); b. color in life in a fresh collected specimen, rio Três Forquilhas basin, Itati, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, UFRGS 16500. 

Fig. 3 Bryconamericus lethostigmus. a. detail of the mouth of a small specimen, with teeth covered by the lips (UFRGS 16083, 24.5 mm SL); b. detail of the mouth of a large specimen with upper lip atrophied and showing the premaxillary teeth (UFRGS 20660, 54.3 mm SL). 

Fig. 5 Ontogenetic changes in the number of tooth rows of the premaxilla, number of teeth in the maxilla and shape of these bones in Bryconamericus lethostigmus. a. 24.1 mm SL (UFRGS 19488); b. 50.4 mm SL (MCP10774); c. 60.9 mm SL (MCP 19173). 

A new species of Hoplomyzon (Siluriformes: Aspredinidae) from Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela: osteological description using high-resolution computed microtomography of a miniature species

Tiago P. Carvalhoresearchgate logo Roberto E. Reis,   John P. Friel

A new miniature species of banjo catfish of the genus Hoplomyzon is described from the Lake Maracaibo Basin in Venezuela. The new species is distinguished from all its congeners by the straight anterior margin of the mesethmoid (vs. a medial notch); a smooth and straight ventral surface of the premaxilla (vs. presence of bony knobs on the ventral surface of premaxilla); absence of teeth on dentary (vs. teeth present on dentary); configuration of ventral vertebral processes anterior to anal fin, which are composed of single processes anterior to anal-fin pterygiophore (vs. paired process); presence of several filamentous barbel-like structures on the ventral surface of head of adults (vs. small papillous structures in the ventral surface of head of adults); and 8 anal-fin rays (vs. 6 or 7). An extensive osteological description is made of the holotype using high-resolution x-ray computed microtomography (HRXCT).


Fig. 1 Hoplomyzon cardosoi, holotype, MCNG 375, 18.5 mm SL, Caño La Raya, Zulia, Venezuela. Dorsal, left side lateral and ventral views.

Fig. 3 HRXCT model of skull and anterior body of Hoplomyzon cardosoi, MCNG 375, holotype, 18.5 mm SL. a. Dorsal view. b. Lateral view of left side. acf: anterior cranial fontanel; ang: anguloarticular; bp: basipterygium; br: branchiostegal rays; cl: cleithrum; cv: complex vertebrae; den: dentary; dfr: dorsal-fin rays; fr: frontal; hyo: hyomandibula; iop: interopercle; let: lateral ethmoid; mes: mesethmoid; met: metapterygoid; mnp: middle nuchal plate; mx: maxilla; na: nasal; pal: autopalatine; pcf: posterior cranial fontanel; pch: posterior ceratohyal; pfr: pectoral fin rays; pll: posterior lateral line plates; pmx: premaxilla; ps: pectoral-fin spine; pto: pterotic; qu: quadrate; sc: postemporo-supracleithrum; soc: parietal-supraoccipital; spo: sphenotic; io1: infraorbitals; iop: interopercle; infraorbital 1; sup: subpreopercle; pv5: parapophysis of vertebra 5; v6: vertebra 6; v9: vertebra 9; v11: vertebra 11; vdp11: vertebral dorsal process of vertebra 11; vfr: pelvic-fin rays. Scale bar = 1 mm. 

Biological invasion at an early stage? First record of the banjo catfish Pseudobunocephalus iheringii (Siluriformes: Aspredinidae) in the Tramandaí river basin, Brazil and the potential invasion pathway to this system

R. A. Silveira, J. Ferrerresearchgate logo , F. G. Becker and S. M. Hartz

Biological invasion by species that are not naturally present in a native assemblage (nonnative species) is a multi-stage process (Blackburn et al., 2011). However, perception of an invasive process is difficult in early stages of the process, when abundance is very low and distribution is very limited. Understanding biological invasions and, eventually, taking management measures to prevent them, depends on early detection of the invasion process (Kolar and Lodge 2001). The presence of nonnative fish species has been reported in the Tramandaí river basin (Schifino et al., 2004; Artioli and Maia 2010; Artioli et al., 2013), but their introduction pathway in the Tramandaí river basin is unknown. A plausible possibility points to the artificial water channels in the wetlands and rice fields at the watershed divide between the Laguna dos Patos basin and the Tramandaí river basin. The aim of this paper is to report the occurrence of Pseudobunocephalus iheringii (Boulenger 1891) in an artificial channel in the watershed divide between the Laguna dos Patos basin and the Tramandaí river basin, in southern Brazil. This report represents the first record of an additional nonnative species in the Tramandaí basin, documents the early stage of a potential invasion process in this system, and represents the first evidence for the role of artificial water channels as invasion pathways for nonnative fish species into the Tramandaí basin, affecting two aquatic ecoregions (Laguna dos Patos and Tramandaí-Mampituba; Abell et al., 2008).

We argue that the absence of previous records in the Tramandaí river basin and the current establishment of artificial channels connecting the Laguna dos Patos and Tramandaí basin corroborate the hypothesis that this area may be the invasion pathway not only for P. iheringii, but probably for other previously recorded invasive species (Schifino et al., 2004; Artioli and Maia, 2010; Artioli et al., 2013). This inter-basin connection has been facilitated by local landscape characteristics, such as low terrain and large wetland areas, which allowed the development of rice fields and their associated network of artificial water channels (Becker et al., 2007), increasing the connectivity between two aquatic ecoregions (the Laguna dos Patos and Tramandaí-Mampituba).


Figure 1. (A) Map showing the sample unit where the three specimens of Pseudobunocephalus iheringii were collected; (B) The dorsal and ventral views of one individual of P. iheringii (UFRGS 20672, SL =30.94 mm).


Description of a New Blind and Rare Species of Xyliphius (Siluriformes: Aspredinidae) from the Amazon Basin Using High-Resolution Computed Tomography

Tiago P. Carvalhoresearchgate logo, Roberto E. Reis and Mark H. Sabaj

Xyliphius sofiae, new species, is described based on a unique specimen exhibiting four autapomorphies: eyes absent vs. present (though reduced); color pale, lacking pigment vs. head and body darkly pigmented; branchiostegal rays five vs. four; and unculiferous tubercles on posterior body distributed evenly vs. enlarged unculiferous tubercles typically arranged in five distinct rows above pelvic-fin base to posterior end of caudal peduncle. In addition, the pectoral fin of X. sofiae, new species, has one ossified proximal radial vs. two in congeners (except X. magdalenae, not examined). Xyliphius sofiae, new species, differs from all congeners except X. lepturus by snout tip elongated and narrowly rounded vs. short and broadly rounded, often with small median notch; fifth ceratobranchial relatively narrow with elongate acicular teeth vs. broadly expanded, leaf-shaped, with shorter and broader, conical teeth; anterior limits of branchial apertures separated by distance less than length of aperture vs. greater than length of aperture; anal-fin rays modally nine vs. seven; and lateral line extending onto base of caudal-fin rays vs. finishing in hypural region. Based on the single specimen collected in the main channel of the Río Amazonas near Iquitos, Peru, we describe the osteology of X. sofiae, new species, using a non-invasive technique: high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRXCT). We consider Xyliphius lombarderoi Risso and Risso, 1964, a species based on a unique holotype that is now lost, to be a subjective junior synonym of X. barbatus Alonso de Arámburu and Arámburu, 1962. Variable characteristics are summarized for the seven species of Xyliphius treated here as valid, and their distributions are plotted based on a comprehensive review of museum specimens.


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Holotype of Xyliphius sofiae, ANSP 182322, 44.1 mm SL, Rio Amazonas in vicinity of Iquitos, Loreto, Peru. (A–C) Alcohol preserved (scale bar =5 mm). (D) Live. Photos by M. Sabaj.

Goliath catfish spawning in the far western Amazon confirmed by the distribution of mature adults, drifting larvae and migrating juveniles

Ronaldo B. Barthem, Michael Goulding, Rosseval Leite, Carlos Cañas, Bruce Forsberg, Eduardo Venticinque, Paulo Petry, Mauro L. de B. Ribeiro, Junior Chuctayaresearchgate logo & Armando Mercado

We mapped the inferred long-distance migrations of four species of Amazonian goliath catfishes (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, B. platynemum, B. juruense and B. vaillantii) based on the presence of individuals with mature gonads and conducted statistical analysis of the expected long-distance downstream migrations of their larvae and juveniles. By linking the distribution of larval, juvenile and mature adult size classes across the Amazon, the results showed: (i) that the main spawning regions of these goliath catfish species are in the western Amazon; (ii) at least three species—B. rousseauxii, B. platynemum, and B. juruense—spawn partially or mainly as far upstream as the Andes; (iii) the main spawning area of B. rousseauxii is in or near the Andes; and (iv) the life history migration distances of B. rousseauxii are the longest strictly freshwater fish migrations in the world. These results provide an empirical baseline for tagging experiments, life histories extrapolated from otolith microchemistry interpretations and other methods to establish goliath catfish migratory routes, their seasonal timing and possible return (homing) to western headwater tributaries where they were born.


Figure 1(A) B. vaillantii (piramutaba in Portuguese, pirabutón in Spanish); (B) B. rousseauxii (dourada in Portuguese, dorado in Spanish); (C) B. platynemum (babão in Portuguese, mota flemosa in Spanish); (D) B. juruense (zebra in Portuguese, zebra in Spanish); (E) Dorado migrations exploited by fishermen. The Santo Antônio Dam on the Madeira River now drowns the Teotônio Rapids (shown here) where B. rousseauxii (species in photo) and B. platynemum were previously exploited and easily detected when migrating. Photos by M. Goulding.

Figure 2

(a) Sites investigated by the authors and others from published data. (be) Locations of mature goliath catfishes by species. Figure was created by authors with ArcGIS for Desktop Advanced 10.2, MapPublisher 9.6 tool inside Adobe Illustrator CC, and Adobe Illustrator CC, 2.0.

News that spoke about the article :

Tech Times: Dorado Catfish Holds Record For World’s Longest Freshwater Fish Migration

The Guardian: Extraordinary migration of giant Amazon catfish revealed

EurekAlert! : Scientists confirm dorado catfish as all-time distance champion of freshwater migrations Scientists confirm dorado catfish as all-time distance champion of freshwater migrations

LiveScience: Giant Amazonian Catfish Is a Record-Breaking Traveler

Newswise: Scientists Confirm Dorado Catfish as All-Time Distance Champion of Freshwater Migrations

Mongabay:  Giant catfish clocks longest ever freshwater migration

Species New to Science: [Ichthyology • 2017] Goliath Catfish (Brachyplatystoma spp., Pimelodidae) Spawning in the far western Amazon confirmed by the Distribution of Mature Adults, Drifting Larvae and Migrating Juveniles

Gizmag Emerging Technology Magazine: Dorado catfish is a freshwater endurance champ News : Giant catfish clocks longest ever freshwater migration

Latest Items from TreeHugger: Meet the extraordinary catfish that travels the width of South America


Mais um mestre formado pelo laboratório de Ictiologia da UFRGS. Hoje, 22 de fevereiro de 2017 foi a defesa de mestrado de Junior Chuctaya, que fez a Revisão taxonômica das espécies do gênero Odontostilbe Cope 1870 (Characidae: Cheirodontinae) da Bacia do Rio da Prata.

Área de Concentração: Biología Comparada

Orientador: Prof. Dr. Luiz Roberto Malabarba

Abanca foi composta por 

Dr Fernando Camargo Jerep :  professor da Universidade Estadual de Londrina

Dr. Vinícius de Araújo Bertaco : Pesquisador do Museu de Ciências Naturais da Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul, curador da coleção científica de peixes.

Dr. Carlos Alberto Santos de Lucena: Curador II no Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia PUCRS.

Parabéns Mestre Junior.


Muito obrigado Dr. Stanley H. Weitzman

Fig 1: Dr. Stanley Weitzman (6 de março de 1927 – 16 de fevereiro do 2017) (foto: Boletín-SBI 2014)

By Junior Chuctaya

Hoje compartilhamos o reconhecimento de um dos pesquisadores mais influentes da ictiologia continental, o Dr. Stanley Weitzman, que infelizmente veio a falecer em 16 de fevereiro do 2017. Nos últimos anos Dr. Weitzman atuou como pesquisador da Divisão de Peixes do Natural Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. Sempre esteve disposto a ajudar a todos os pesquisador que visitavam o Smithsonian.

Ele começou seus estudos com peixes quando era estudante na Universidade da Califórnia, Berkeley e posteriormente continuou na Universidade de Stanford. Em 2014 a SBI, em seu Boletim 108 (, realizou uma importante entrevista, onde o Dr. Weitzman conta suas experiências de vida e como começou a estudar os peixes de América do Sul e outras experiências pessoais.

Fig 2: Dr. Stanley Weitzman, no Smithsonian Institute, em Washington, foto tirada na década de 1970. (Boletín -SBI 2014)

O Dr. Weitzman, colaborando com o Dr. Myers, descreveu sua primeira espécies em 1954, Corydoras cochui Myers & Weitzman 1954. Esse foi o início de uma incrível carreira na taxonomia de peixes, chegando a descrever 77 espécies (3 delas sinonimizadas), sempre junto com a colaboração de sua esposa, também ictióloga, que descreveu 2 espécies, Jupiaba scologaster (Weitzman & Vari 1986) e Hyphessobrycon elachys Weitzman 1985. Ambos pesquisadores publicaram perto de 300 artigos, muitos destes citados nos mais diferentes trabalhos da atualidade. A curiosidade de Dr. Weitzman levou-o a trabalhar com peixes de diferentes países do mundo, destacando Brasil, Venezuela, Colômbia, Peru, Equador, Panamá, Guiana, Bolívia e China. Weitzman gostava muito dos Characiformes, durante toda sua vida descreveu espécies de diferentes ordenes:  Characiformes, Siluriformes, Cyprinodontiformes, Cypriniformes e Stomiiformes, distribuídos em 12 famílias, destacando Characidae e Callichthydae. A curva de espécies acumulados representando as espécies descritas pelo Dr. Weitzman nunca chegou a se estabilizar. Se ele continuasse trabalhando, com certeza continuaria descrevendo muitas novas espécies.

Fig 3. a) Curva acumulada de espécies descritas pelo Dr. Weitzman 1954-2013. b) Espécies descritas por ano em colaboração com diferentes pesquisadores.

Fig 4. a) Porcentagem de espécies descritas por ordem b) Número de espécies descritas por família pelo Dr. Weitzman

Fig 5. Número de espécies descritas por país pelo Dr. Weitzman

Durante toda sua trajetória o Dr. Weitzman foi reconhecido por diferentes pesquisadores, nomeando as espécies descritas com seu nome:

  • Poecilocharax weitzmani Géry 1965
  • Corydoras weitzmani Nijssen 1971
  • Maurolicus weitzmani Parin & Kobyliansky 1993
  • Microcharacidium weitzmani Buckup 1993
  • Jenynsia weitzmani Ghedotti, Meisner & Lucinda 2001
  • Lophiobrycon weitzmani Castro, Ribeiro, Benine & Melo 2003
  • Hyphessobrycon weitzmanorum Lima & Moreira 2003
  • Knodus weitzmani (Menezes, Netto-Ferreira & Ferreira 2009)

O Brasil foi uns dos lugares preferidos pelo Dr. Weitzman, descrevendo 42 espécies. Nele trabalhou principalmente com pesquisadores de MZUSP, como os Doutores Naércio Menezes e Heraldo Britzki, e com pesquisadores do laboratório de ictiologia da UFRGS, principalmente com o Prof. Luiz Malabarba. Sempre se caracterizou por estar disponível para receber e ajudar na formação de muitos pesquisadores do Brasil e do mundo. Muitos pesquisadores destacam sua grande personalidade, seu desejo de compartilhar todos os conhecimentos e seus desenhos de peixes. Definitivamente foi e será uma grande perda para a Ictiologia do mundo, sempre será lembrado em cada trabalho de taxonomia, sistemática, etc… revisando os ossos dos peixes segundo Weitzman 1964, fazendo medições segundo Fink e Weitzman 1974, testando hipóteses de relações filogenéticas segundo os diferentes trabalhos de Weitzman et al. Sempre será lembrado por sua participação no Primeiro Simpósio de Sistemática e Filogenia no Brasil em 1997.

Fig 6. a) Naércio Menezes, Marylin Weitzman, Stanley Weitzman, Carlos Lucena, Margarete Lucena, numa expedição de campo aos rios do litoral de Santa Catarina, na década de 1980. b) Marylin Weitzman e Stanley Weitzman (no meio, em pé), durante o International Symposium on Phylogeny and Classification of Neotropical Fishes, Porto Alegre, 1997, foto: Boletin-SBI 2014)

Muito obrigado Dr. Weitzman, eu não cheguei a conhecê-lo pessoalmente, mas escutando os colegas falar de você, lendo seus trabalhos, é como se sua personalidade ficasse presente, permitindo conhecê-lo indiretamente.

Fig7. a) Alice Hirschmann e Dr. Weitzman no Smithsonian Institute, em Washington. b) Vinicius Bertaco, Dr. Weitzman e Luiz R. Malabarba em Smithsonian Institute. Fotos: Alice Hirschmann (a) e Vinicius Bertaco (b).

Especies descritas por Stanley H. Weitzman 1954-2013

       Ano       Espécies  

  • 1954      Corydoras cochui Myers & Weitzman 1954
  • 1956      Leptodoras praelongus (Myers & Weitzman 1956)
  • 1956      Hyphessobrycon cardinalis Myers & Weitzman 1956                                           sinônimos sênior: Paracheirodon axelrodi (Schultz 1956)
  • 1957      Thayeria boehlkei Weitzman 1957
  • 1960      Brycon whitei Myers & Weitzman 1960
  • 1960      Corydoras habrosus Weitzman 1960
  • 1960      Corydoras reynoldsi Myers & Weitzman 1960
  • 1960      Pyrrhulina spilota Weitzman 1960
  • 1960      Corydoras sychri Weitzman 1960
  • 1961      Corydoras concolor Weitzman 1961
  • 1963      Corydoras pastazensis Weitzman 1963.
  • 1964      Corydoras semiaquilus Weitzman 1964
  • 1965      Astronesthes psychrolutes (Gibbs & Weitzman 1965)
  • 1966      Malacoglanis gelatinosus Myers & Weitzman 1966
  • 1966      Aphyocypris lini (Weitzman & Chan 1966)
  • 1966      Sarcoglanis simplex Myers & Weitzman 1966
  • 1967      Terranatos dolichopterus (Weitzman & Wourms 1967)
  • 1970      Corydoras pastazensis orcesi Weitzman & Nijssen 1970                                         sinônimos sênior: Corydoras pastazensis Weitzman 1963
  • 1970      Chrysobrycon myersi (Weitzman & Thomerson 1970)
  • 1970      Corydoras atropersonatus Weitzman & Nijssen 1970
  • 1970      Corydoras orphnopterus Weitzman & Nijssen 1970
  • 1970      Aspidoras pauciradiatus (Weitzman & Nijssen 1970)
  • 1970      Corydoras simulatus Weitzman & Nijssen 1970
  • 1971      Nematobrycon lacortei Weitzman & Fink 1971
  • 1974      Odontostilbe dialeptura (Fink & Weitzman 1974)
  • 1974      Odontostilbe mitoptera (Fink & Weitzman 1974)
  • 1975      Nannostomus marilynae Weitzman & Cobb 1975
  • 1976      Ammocryptocharax elegans Weitzman & Kanazawa 1976
  • 1977      Hyphessobrycon diancistrus Weitzman 1977
  • 1977      Hyphessobrycon socolofi Weitzman 1977
  • 1977      Odontocharacidium aphanes (Weitzman & Kanazawa 1977)
  • 1978      Elachocharax geryi Weitzman & Kanazawa 1978
  • 1978      Nannostomus britskii Weitzman 1978
  • 1978      Nannostomus limatus Weitzman 1978
  • 1978      Nannostomus nitidus Weitzman 1978
  • 1981      Rachoviscus graciliceps Weitzman & Cruz 1981
  • 1985      Xenurobrycon heterodon Weitzman & Fink 1985
  • 1985      Xenurobrycon pteropus Weitzman & Fink 1985
  • 1986      Elachocharax mitopterus Weitzman 1986
  • 1986      Nematocharax venustus Weitzman, Menezes & Britski 1986
  • 1987      Nannostomus anduzei Fernandez & Weitzman 1987
  • 1987      Priocharax ariel Weitzman & Vari 1987
  • 1987      Priocharax pygmaeus Weitzman & Vari 1987
  • 1987      Xenurobrycon polyancistrus Weitzman 1987
  • 1989      Scoloplax distolothrix Schaefer, Weitzman & Britski 1989
  • 1989      Scoloplax dolicholophia Schaefer, Weitzman & Britski 1989
  • 1989      Scoloplax empousa Schaefer, Weitzman & Britski 1989
  • 1990      Mimagoniates rheocharis Menezes & Weitzman 1990
  • 1990      Mimagoniates sylvicola Menezes & Weitzman 1990
  • 1994      Ptychocharax rhyacophila Weitzman, Fink, Machado-Allison & Royero L. 1994.
  • 1995      Jenynsia eirmostigma Ghedotti & Weitzman 1995
  • 1995      Tyttocharax tambopatensis Weitzman & Ortega 1995
  • 1995      Jenynsia unitaenia Ghedotti & Weitzman 1995
  • 1996      Jenynsia sanctaecatarinae Ghedotti & Weitzman 1996
  • 1997      Hyphessobrycon epicharis Weitzman & Palmer 1997
  • 1999      Acinocheirodon melanogramma Malabarba & Weitzman 1999
  • 1999      Spintherobolus ankoseion Weitzman & Malabarba 1999
  • 1999      Spintherobolus leptoura Weitzman & Malabarba 1999
  • 2000      Kolpotocheirodon theloura Malabarba & Weitzman 2000
  • 2000      Skiotocharax meizon Presswell, Weitzman & Bergquist 2000
  • 2003      Cyanocharax macropinna Malabarba & Weitzman 2003                                           sinônimos sênior:  Diapoma uruguayensis (Messner 1962)
  • 2003      Diapoma alegretense (Malabarba & Weitzman 2003)
  • 2003      Diapoma dicropotamicus (Malabarba & Weitzman 2003)
  • 2003      Diapoma itaimbe (Malabarba & Weitzman 2003)
  • 2003      Diapoma lepiclastus (Malabarba, Weitzman & Casciotta 2003)
  • 2003      Diapoma tipiaia (Malabarba & Weitzman 2003)
  • 2003      Planaltina britskii Menezes, Weitzman & Burns 2003
  • 2003      Planaltina glandipedis Menezes, Weitzman & Burns 2003
  • 2004      Kolpotocheirodon figueiredoi Malabarba, Lima & Weitzman 2004
  • 2005      Knodus tanaothoros (Weitzman, Menezes, Evers & Burns 2005)
  • 2008      Amazonspinther dalmata Bührnheim, Carvalho, Malabarba & Weitzman 2008.
  • 2009      Glandulocauda caerulea Menezes & Weitzman 2009
  • 2009      Mimagoniates pulcher Menezes & Weitzman 2009
  • 2011      Diapoma pyrrhopteryx Menezes & Weitzman 2011
  • 2011      Diapoma thauma Menezes & Weitzman 2011
  • 2013      Monotocheirodon drilos Menezes, Weitzman & Quagio-Grassiotto 2013
  • 2013      Monotocheirodon kontos Menezes, Weitzman & Quagio-Grassiotto 2013

Especies descritas por Marilyn Weitzman

  • 1985      Hyphessobrycon elachys Weitzman 1985
  • 1986      Jupiaba scologaster (Weitzman & Vari 1986)


Dietary differentiation in relation to mouth and tooth morphology of a neotropical characid fish community

Karine Orlandi Bonato, Edward D. Burress,  Clarice Bernhardt Fialho


The relationship between diet and mouth and tooth morphology among eleven characid species is evaluated herein. Specifically, we tested for: (1) significant differences among the diets and (2) corresponding variation of mouth and tooth morphology. Fishes were collected bimonthly during 2012 and 2013 using electrofishing techniques in the Alto Jacuí sub-basin. A total of 1525 stomachs were analyzed representing eleven species of characid fishes. A Permutational Multivariate Analysis of Variance (PERMANOVA) analysis showed significant interspecific differences among the diets, and Similarity Percentage (SIMPER) analysis indicated that the main food items that contributed to this differentiation were variation in the relative consumption of terrestrial and aquatic plants, terrestrial and unidentified aquatic insect, and adult Hymenoptera. Lastly, Constrained Principal Analysis on Coordinates (CAP) analyses showed that several morphological features were associated with dietary patterns. For example, sub-terminal mouth positions were correlated with the ingestion of benthic items (i.e., aquatic insects and organic matter). Large mouths were associated with species that consume large items such as Decapoda (e.g., Aegla) and fish. Species that showed a minor variation in tooth morphology along the outer row of the premaxilla, as well as those that have fewer teeth on the maxilla, consumed high proportions of plants and terrestrial insects. Species with intermediate and high numbers of cusps in the maxilla teeth tended to consume aquatic insects. Here, we demonstrated that eleven species of characid fishes had different diets and that those diets were correlated to a specific mouth and tooth morphology. Therefore, diet and oral morphology likely co-evolved such that divergence in trophic-related morphology likely facilitated dietary differentiation among characid fishes.

Artigo completo:

Fig: Ordination of the Characidae species in the Alto Jacuí sub-basin, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, produced by the first two axes of the Constrained Principal Analysis on Coordinates (CAP1 and CAP2) applied to the correlation of six morphological tooth features and items ingested by the species. Morphological features: PM = mouth position, SM = mouth size, NTOR = number of teeth in outer row, NTIR = number of teeth in inner row, NCM = number of cusps on maxilla, NTM = number of teeth on maxilla. Items categories: ai = unidentified aquatic insects, ti = unidentified terrestrial insects, oa = other aquatic invertebrates, ot = other terrestrial invertebrates, mi = microcrustaceans, tp = terrestrial plants, ap = aquatic plants, al = algae, se = sediment, mo = organic matter, ta = Testae Amoebae, de = detritus, fi = fish.