Main model organisms for Homo sapiens (genome sequencing projects)

Epidemiology : Model organisms : cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Fungi/Metazoa group; Metazoa; Eumetazoa; Bilateria
  • Coelomata
  • Pseudocoelomata; Nematoda; Chromadorea; Rhabditida; Rhabditoidea; Rhabditidae; Peloderinae; Caenorhabditis
  • Definitions : There are several ways in which inbred strains may differ at only a small part of the genome : Web resources :
  • Fungi
  • Viridiplantae
  • Mycetozoa
  • Alveolata
  • bacteria
  • control animal : a standard against which experimental observations may be evaluated
  • experimental animal : an animal which is used as a subject of experimental procedures in the laboratory.
  • Animal experimentation is terminated by the euthanasia procedure in order to avoid pain and minimize suffering. Very little is known about the real time physiological changes taking place in the brain of animals during the euthanasia. Since there is no way to evaluate the suffering of animals under euthanasia, it is assumed that objective physiological changes taking place could serve as a good way to compare various types of euthanasia procedures. The effect of euthanasia induced by i. v. injection of concentrated KCL to that of Taxan T-61 (a standard mixture used by veterinarians) were compared. The responses of the cat brain were evaluated by monitoring the hemodynamic (CBF), metabolic (NADH redox state), electrical (EcoG) and extracellular ion levels, as an indicator to the ionic homeostasisref. Researchers sought to determine whether any of the common methods of euthanasia for adult rodents would lead to an acceptable death for fetuses or neonates. Researchers wanted to identify a method that was rapid, free of signs of pain or distress, reliable, and minimally distressful to the person performing the procedure and that minimized the amount of handling required to perform the procedure. Researchers evaluated 6 methods of euthanasia, with and without anesthesia, in three age groups of mice: gravid mice (E14-20) and neonatal pups (P1-P7 and P8-P14). Euthanasia methods included: Noninvasive echocardiography was used to assess heartbeat during euthanasia. With cardiac arrest as the definition of death, no method of euthanasia killed fetal mice. Halothane inhalation (5% by vaporizer) was not an acceptable method of euthanasia for mice of the age groups tested. Intraperitoneal administration of sodium pentobarbital for euthanasia required a higher dose than the previously established dose, and there is a risk of reduced efficacy in pregnant animals due to potential intrauterine injection. CO2 asphyxiation was the most efficient method of euthanasia for neonatal mouse pups P1-14. For pregnant adult mice, intravenous potassium chloride under anesthesia, CO2 asphyxiation, and cervical dislocation alone or under anesthesia were excellent methods of euthanasiaref.

    Lisa Wiesmüller, 43, head of gynecological oncology at the University of Ulm, was honored for developing a test using human cell culture to detect potential carcinogenic effects or genetic damage from medicines and food additives. Such testing currently requires use of animals. They won the 2004 Ursula M. Händel Animal Protection Prize given by the German Research Foundation (DFG). Klaus Otto, 51, professor of experimental surgery and anesthesiology at the central animal laboratory of the University of Hanover's Medical School was recognized for his work to find more accurate means of measuring the effectiveness of general anesthesia on animals used in research. Instead of using traditional measuring methods such as heart rate, blood pressure, and pupil dilation, he used electroencephalogram to measure brain activity

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