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The amino-terminal domain of A20, which is a de-ubiquitinating (DUB) enzyme of the OTU (ovarian tumour) family, removes lysine-63 (K63)-linked ubiquitin chains from receptor interacting protein (RIP), an essential mediator of the proximal TNFR1 signalling complex. The carboxy-terminal domain of A20, composed of 7 C2/C2 zinc fingers, then functions as a ubiquitin ligase by polyubiquitinating RIP with K48-linked ubiquitin chains, thereby targeting RIP for proteasomal degradation and inhibiting NF-kB signallingref
MKP5 is a negative regulator of innate immunity. MKP5 is required for T-cell proliferation but is a negative regulator of effector T-cell cytokine productionref.

Neonatal cord blood responses to multiple TLR agonists, including poly dI:dC (TLR3), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (TLR4), flagellin (TLR5), and CpG DNA (TLR9), are characterized by a higher IL-6/TNF-a ratio than in adult peripheral blood. Robust LPS-induced IL-6 production is due to both neonatal cellular (monocyte-) and humoral (serum-) factors. Remarkably, serum collected from newborns during the first week of life demonstrates higher IL-6/TNF-a ratios than does cord blood, associated with elevations of the IL-6-inducible acute phase reactants CRP and LPS-binding protein in the first days of life. A high ratio of stimulus-induced IL-6/TNF-a production is likely to profoundly modulate both innate and adaptive immune responses in the human newbornref.

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