Table of contents :

  • Cardiopathies 
  • Pulmonary vasculopathies 
  • Peripheral blood vessels disease
  • Lymph vessel diseases 
  • Web resources

  • Epidemiology : in 2002 62 million Americans (32 million females and 30 million males > 20%) - had a cardiovascular disease (including hypertension). The prevalence rises progressively with age from 5% at age 20 to 75% at age > 75 years. 8% or 22 million adults in the US have heart disease. In the US, the prevalence rate for those who have angina pectoris is 17.5 per 1000 people
    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) represent the first leading cause of death in Westernized countries, accounting for 45-50% of all deaths: 35% are coronary artery diseases (CAD). Contradicting conventional wisdom, the largest-ever worldwide collaborative study of heart disease has found that women are slightly more likely to die from CVD than men and that heart attacks and stroke kill twice as many women as all cancers combined. Out of the total 16.5 million CVD deaths annually, 8.6 million are of women. Although > 80% of the global burden of cardiovascular disease occurs in low-income and middle-income countries, knowledge of the importance of risk factors is largely derived from developed countries. Therefore, the effect of such factors on risk of coronary heart disease in most regions of the world is unknown.
    Risk factors significantly related to acute myocardial infarction (p<0.0001 for all risk factors and p=0.03 for alcohol) include :

    These associations were noted in men and women, old and young, and in all regions of the world. Collectively, these nine risk factors accounted for 90% of the PAR in men and 94% in women. Abnormal lipids, smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, abdominal obesity, psychosocial factors, consumption of fruits, vegetables, and alcohol, and regular physical activity account for most of the risk of myocardial infarction worldwide in both sexes and at all ages in all regions. This finding suggests that approaches to prevention can be based on similar principles worldwide and have the potential to prevent most premature cases of myocardial infarctionref.
    Other cardiovascular risk factors include : Heart diseases (cardiopathies) Diseases of pulmonary blood vessels / pulmonary vasculopathies